Sobre a tutela jurídica do incapaz no Brasil: o (des)encontro entre o Direito Penal e o Direito Civil

AutorAntonio de Holanda Cavalcante Segundo, Laura Germano Matos
CargoDoutor em Direito pela Universidade Federal do Ceará - UFC (2021.1)/Advogada. Sócia do Escritório Sonsol e Matos Advocacia. Mestre em Direito pela Universidade Federal do Ceará
DOI ht tps ://d oi .or g/1 0.5 00 7/217 7-7 055 .2 022 .e8 6611
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On the protection of the legally
incapable in Brazil: the (ir)reconciliation
between Criminal and Civil Law
Sobre a tutela jurídica do incapaz no Brasil: o (des)
encontro entre o Direito Penal e o Direito Civil
Antonio de Holanda Cavalcante Segundo¹
Laura Germano Matos1
¹Federal Universit y of Ceará, For taleza, Brazil.
Abstract: Based on the analysis of the case of Juvena l Raimundo de Araújo, this
paper seeks to cr iticize the complete d issociation betwee n the branches of Crim inal
and Civil Law, specically in the treatment given to those considered incapable.
When predict ing institution alization by an unde termined period of time of non-
-imputable ind ividuals who commit ted a felony, the law maintains these persons
far from com munity and family ties wh ile hospita lized for ps ychiatric treatment.
It was noticed that the weakening of such ties had neg ative repercu ssions year s
later, by the ti me of these persons’ release, who of ten needed assistance t o manage
some acts of their civil life, requiring conservatorsh ip. It is possible to conclude
that, disregarding the complexity of the huma n being when ma king decisions
that impact indenitely in persons’ lives, there is an aggravation of situat ions of
vulnerabilit y, which is why a more global and system ic view of legal problems is
necessar y for the promotion of human dignity.
Key words: Conservat orship. Persons with inte llectual di sabilities. Judic ial security
measures. Institut ionali zation. Interdisciplinarity.
Resumo: O presente artigo busc a, a partir da a nálise do Caso de Juven al Raimundo
de Araújo, cr iticar a completa dis sociação entre os ramo s do Direito Penal e do Civi l,
especica mente no trat amento dispensado àquele tido como incapaz. Ao prever
a institucionali zação por tempo i ndeterm inado de in imputáveis que pr aticara m
fato típico pena l, a lei mantém essas pessoas dist antes de vínculos comunitários e
fami liares enquanto inter nadas para trat amento psiqu iátrico. Percebeu-se que a
frag ilização de ta is laços repercute negat ivamente anos depois, qua ndo da liberação
de tais pessoas, as quais, muitas vezes, precisam de assistência pa ra gerir alguns
atos de sua vid a civil, necessita ndo de curadores judici ais. É possível concluir que,
desconsiderando a complexidade do ser humano quando da tom ada de decisões
que impacta m em denitivo a vida d as pessoas, há um a gravamento de situa ções de
vulnerabilidade, razão pel a qual uma visão ma is global e sistêmica do s problemas
jurídicos faz-se nece ssári a para a promoção d a dign idade huma na.
Palavras-chave: Curatela Judicia l. Pessoas com deciência menta l. Medida s de
segura nça. Institucional ização. Interdisciplinariedade.
Juvenal Raimundo de A raújo, in 1968, at age 18, was considered
mentally i ll and forced, by a judicial security mea sure, to hospitalization
at the Psychiatric Inst itute Governador Stênio Gomes, in Ceará, Bra zil,
after being accused of perpetrating attempted murder against his bro-
ther. He was institutionalized for about 46 years, until a joint eort of
the National Council of Justice – CNJ, in 2013, found out that he had
been conned for longer time than he was sentenced to, which is why
measures were required to his disinterment (BRASIL, 2013, p. 84-5).
After so many years of hospitalization – justied by several psy-
chiatric reports that attested his incapacity for social life – suddenly
there was an urgent need to free him. In apparent change of unders-
tanding, his alleged illness gave way to the necessary respect to the
time limit of his criminal verdict. By law, the time of the sanction
and of medical treatment are to be equivalent.
For his return to social life, family or community ties were
sought. Persons who could take in a man, now elderly, who since the
beginn ing of adult life has not lived free. However, what links someone
who has spent nearly half a century incarcerated could have outside
the walls of the institution in which he had once lived for so long?
Currently, Juvenal resides in the so -called Therapeutic Residential
Service, in Fortaleza, Cea rá, a Unied Health System – SUS – program
SEQÜÊNCI A (FLORIA NÓPOLIS) , VOL. 43, N. 90, 2022 3
that welcomes persons with mental disabilities who have no family or
social ties. In 2020, a State’s Public Prosecutor found that he and others ,
who reside in these homes, needed conservators so that their assets and
business life could be managed, but who could perform such a role?
Juvenal’s history ca n be told and analyzed from dierent per spec-
tives, but this essay seeks to cut on the relation between Criminal and
Civil Law, concerning this case. On the rst topic, it aims to criticize
the application of judicial secu rity measures predicted by Cr iminal Law
as an equivalent of psychiat ric treatment. On the second topic, the con-
servatorship institute is legally ana lyzed in opposition with the recom-
mendation formulated by a St ate’s Public Prosecutor for the constitution
of a Conservatorship Committee in Fortaleza, which came to reach,
years later, Juvenal Raimundo de Araújo. Finally, on the third topic,
the paper proposes a change of perspective on the compartmentalized
way of seeing the human being: under the logic of one or another legal
branch, which often provides unsat isfactory solutions, considering on ly
a fraction of the reality at the ti me, what leads to, years later, an increa-
sing of the problems concernin g the protection of the incapable person,
which is why only a more systematic treatment can promote a global
vision that considers the complexity of the human being, seeking, as
the last and main purpose, the promotion of human dignit y, especially
regarding persons in situation of extreme vulnerability.
In the Brazilian legal system, when someone is charged with a
felony, but is considered non-imputable
, instead of receiving a regular
1 Non-imputa bility i s dened in a rt. 26 of the Pen al Code: “the oen der who, due
to ill ness, incomp lete or delayed ment al development , was, at the t ime of the act ion
or omission , entirely u nable to und erstand t he ill icit natur e of the fact or to b ehave
accordin g to this understa nding”.

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