Inglés

AutorMark Hughes, Anthony Rosenberg e Rodrigo Armstrong
Páginas113-174
2. inglês
Mark Hughes, Anthony Rosenberg e Rodrigo Armstrong*
TEXT I1
Heatwaves are killing people
In recent days heatwaves have turned swathes of America
and Europe into furnaces. Despite the accompanying
blast of headlines, the implications of such extreme
heat are often overlooked or underplayed. Spectacular
images of hurricanes or oods grab attention more readily,
yet heatwaves can cause more deaths. Heat is one of
climate change’s deadliest manifestations. Sometimes
its impact is unmistakable – a heatwave in Europe in
2003 is estimated to have claimed 70,000 lives. More
often, though, heatwaves are treated like the two in the
Netherlands in 2018. In just over three weeks, around 300
more people died than would normally be expected at
that time of year. This was dismissed as a “minor rise” by
ofcials. But had those people died in a ood, it would
have been front-page news.
The havoc caused by extreme heat does not get the
attention it merits for several reasons. The deaths tend
to be more widely dispersed and do not involve the
devastation of property as do the ravages of wind
and water. Moreover, deaths are not usually directly
attributable to heatstroke. Soaring temperatures just turn
pre-existing conditions such as heart problems or lung
disease lethal.
Heatwaves will inevitably attract more attention as
they become more frequent. As greenhouse gases
continue to accumulate in the atmosphere, not only will
temperatures rise overall but extremes of heat will occur
more frequently. Britain’s Met Ofce calculates that by
the 2040s European summers as hot as that of 2003 could
be commonplace, regardless of how fast emissions are
reduced. Urbanisation intensies the risk to health: cities
are hotter places than the surrounding countryside, and
more people are moving into them.
The good news is that most fatalities are avoidable, if
three sets of measures are put in place. First, people must
be made aware that extreme heat can kill and warning
systems established. Heatwaves can be predicted with
reasonable accuracy, which means warnings can be given
in advance advising people to stay indoors, seek cool
areas and drink plenty of water. Smart use of social media
can help. In 2017 a campaign on Facebook warning of
the dangers of a heatwave in Dhaka, Bangladesh’s capital,
reached 3.9m people, nearly half the city’s population.
Second, cool shaded areas and fresh water should
be made available. In poor places, air-conditioned
community centres and schools can be kept open
permanently. In Cape Town, spray parks have been
installed to help people cool down. Third, new buildings
* Rodrigo Armstrong (comentou 2013, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 e 20),
Mark Hughes e Anthony Rosenberg (comentaram 2010, 11 e 12)
must be designed to be resilient to the threat of extreme
heat and existing ones adapted. White walls, roofs or
tarpaulins, and extra vegetation in cities, all of which
help prevent heat from building up, can be provided
fairly cheaply. A programme to install “cool roofs” and
insulation in Philadelphia reduced maximum indoor
temperatures by 1.3˚C.
It is a cruel irony that, as with other effects of climate
change, the places that are hardest hit by heatwaves can
least afford to adapt. In poor countries, where climates
are often hotter and more humid, public-health systems
are weaker and preoccupied with other threats. Often,
adaptation to extreme heat is done by charities if it is
done at all. Particular attention should be paid to reaching
both remote areas and densely populated urban ones,
including slums where small dwellings with tin roofs
packed together worsen the danger that uncomfortably
high temperatures will become lethal.
Adaptation is not an alternative to cutting emissions; both
are necessary. But even if net emissions are reduced to
zero this century, the persistence of greenhouse gases
in the atmosphere means that heatwaves will continue
to get worse for decades to come. As the mercury rises,
governments in rich and poor countries alike must do
more to protect their populations from this very real and
quietly deadly aspect of climate change.
Heatwaves are killing people. Available at: .economist.
com>. Retrieved on: Aug. 22. 2019, with adaptations.
(IADES Diplomacia 2019) Considering the ideas and the
vocabulary in the text, mark the following items as right
(C) or wrong (E).
(1) In the rst paragraph, the word “swathes” (line 1) can
be correctly replaced with areas.
(2) In the rst paragraph, the word blast (line 3) can be
correctly replaced with number.
(3) Deaths caused by heatwaves do not shock much as
deaths by other natural disasters do.
(4) Heatwaves are probably more lethal than oods.
1: Correct. The word “swathe” means “a long piece of land, especially
one on which the plants or crops have been cut; a large piece or area
of something” (Oxford Dictionary)
2: Wrong. In this case, “blast” is a metaphor with the same meaning
of “explosion”.
3. Correct. “Despite the accompanying blast of headlines, the impli-
cations of such extreme heat are often overlooked or underplayed.
Spectacular images of hurricanes or oods grab attention more readily,
yet heatwaves can cause more deaths”.
4. Correct. “More often, though, heatwaves are treated like the two in
the Netherlands in 2018. In just over three weeks, around 300 more
people died than would normally be expected at that time of year. This
was dismissed as a “minor rise” by ofcials. But had those people died
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MARK HUGHES, ANTHONY ROSENBERG E RODRIGO ARMSTRONG
114
in a ood, it would have been front-page news.”
Gabarito 1C, 2E, 3C, 4E
(IADES Diplomacia 2019) Considering the ideas and the
vocabulary in the text, mark the following items as right
(C) or wrong (E).
(1) In the second paragraph, the words “havoc” (line
16) and “ravages” (line 19) both mean “extensive or
devastating destruction”.
(2) The cause-effect relationship between heatwaves and
deaths is not obvious.
(3) Not only do heatwaves kill immediately but they also
lead to eventual deaths.
(4) Emissions need to be stopped if a heatwave like the
one in 2003 is to be avoided.
1: Correct. Both words are synonymous with destruction, devastation
or chaos.
2: Correct. “Moreover, deaths are not usually directly attributable to
heatstroke. Soaring temperatures just turn pre-existing conditions such
as heart problems or lung disease lethal.”
3: Correct. The answer is located in the passage: “Moreover, deaths
are not usually directly attributable to heatstroke. Soaring temperatu-
res just turn pre-existing conditions such as heart problems or lung
disease lethal.”
4: Wrong. “Adaptation is not an alternative to cutting emissions; both are
necessary. But even if net emissions are reduced to zero this century,
the persistence of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere means that
heatwaves will continue to get worse for decades to come”.
Gabarito 1C, 2C, 3C, 4E
TEXT II
Since 1914 the structure of the world has changed.
Compared to the present struggle between West and East,
the rivalries of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
sink into insignicance. Today we are faced, not with
a clash of interests, but with a ght between the desire
on the one hand to defend individual liberties and the
resolve on the other hand to impose a mass religion. In
the process the old standards, conventions and methods
of international negotiation have been discredited. Had
it not been for the invention of the atomic bomb, we
should already have been subjected to a third world war.
Members of the Communist bloc today are convinced that
sooner or later they will acquire world dominion and will
succeed in imposing their faith and their authority over
the whole earth. They strain towards this
objective with religious intensity and are prepared to
devote to its achievement their lives, their comfort and
their prospects of happiness. Anything that furthers their
purpose is “right”; anything that obstructs it is “wrong”;
conventional morality, even the creation of condence,
has no part in this scheme of things. Truth itself has lost
its signicance. Compared to the shining truth of their
gospel, all minor forms of veracity are merely bourgeois
inhibitions. The old diplomacy was based upon the
creation of condence, the acquisition of credit. The
modern diplomat must realize that he can no longer rely
on the old system of trust; he must accept the fact that
his antagonists will not hesitate to falsify facts and that
they feel no shame if their duplicity be exposed. The old
currency has been withdrawn from circulation; we are
dealing in a new coinage.
This transformation of values has been aided by a new
or “democratic” conception of international relations. In
the old days the conduct of foreign affairs was entrusted
to a small international élite who shared the same sort of
background and who desired to preserve the same sort of
world. Today the masses are expected to take an interest in
foreign affairs, to know the details of current controversies,
to come to their own conclusions, and to render these
conclusions effective through press and parliament. At the
same time, however, current issues have been rendered
complex and interconnected; it is not possible to state
issues, such as the Common Market, in short and simple
terms. Thus, whereas the man in the street is expected
to have an opinion on international problems, the very
complexity of these problems has rendered it difcult
to provide him with the information on which to base
his judgment.
Nicolson, H. (1963) (3rd edition) Diplomacy. Oxford: OUP,
with adaptations.
(IADES Diplomacia 2019) As far as grammar is concerned and
based on the text, mark the following items as right (C)
or wrong (E).
(1) Another correct preposition used with the verb
“Compared” (line 2) is with, as in “to compare with”.
(2) The expression “Had it not been” (line 9) describes a
hypothetical action that would have occurred in the
past.
(3) In the fragment “to its achievement” (line 17), the
underlined pronoun refers to “religious intensity” (line
16).
(4) In the fragment “Thus, whereas the man in the street”
(line 43), the underlined adverb means “as a result of
what has just been said or stated” and can be replaced
with hence.
1: Correct. Both prepositions are accepted with the word “compared”.
2: Correct. “Had it not been…” is the third conditional inversion equi-
valent of “if it had not been…”.
3: Wrong. “Its” refers to “objective”.
4: Correct. Both “thus” and “hence” are conjunctions that introduce
a consequence.
Gabarito 1C, 2C, 3E, 4C
(IADES Diplomacia 2019) Based on the text, mark the following
items as right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) The ultimate goal of the author of the text is to draw
attention to the importance of nuclear deterrence.
(2) It can be inferred from the text that world diplomacy
had then been increasingly dominated by religious
fanaticism and nancial interests.
(3) The author urges Western diplomats to resort to the
same unprincipled conduct their Eastern colleagues
engage in.
(4) The general tenor of the text reects the bipolar world
order prevalent in the diplomatic scene after the
Second World War.
1: Wrong. The only mention to nuclear deterrence is at the end of the
rst paragraph, when he mentions how such weapons were able to
prevent a third world war. The rest of the text is about how the Cold
War has changed diplomacy.
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115
2. INGLêS
2: Wrong. The religion is used metaphorically to refer to communist,
and there is not mention of nancial interests.
3: Wrong. He only goes as far as saying they must be prepared to deal
with such practices: “The modern diplomat must realize that he can no
longer rely on the old system of trust; he must accept the fact that his
antagonists will not hesitate to falsify facts and that they feel no shame
if their duplicity be exposed. The old currency has been withdrawn from
circulation; we are dealing in a new coinage.”
4: Correct. The text is an example of the political rigidity generated by
bipolarity: “Compared to the present struggle between West and East,
the rivalries of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries sink into insig-
nicance. Today we are faced, not with a clash of interests, but with a
ght between the desire on the one hand to defend individual liberties
and the resolve on the other hand to impose a mass religion. In the
process the old standards, conventions and methods of international
negotiation have been discredited.”
Gabarito 1E, 2E, 3E, 4C
(IADES Diplomacia 2019) As far as lexical comprehension
is concerned, mark the following items as right (C) or
wrong (E).
(1) In the fragment “resolve on the other hand to impose
a mass religion.” (lines 6 and 7), the underlined word
means “alternative”.
(2) In the fragment “They strain towards this objective”
(lines 15 and 16), the underlined word is synonymous
with “move”.
(3) In “their prospects of happiness.” (lines 17 and 18)
the underlined word can be correctly replaced with
chances or possibilities.
(4) In “and to render these conclusions effective” (lines
38 and 39), the underlined word means “to make”.
1: Wrong. “Resolve” in this case means “determination” (Merriam-
-Webster Dictionary).
2: Wrong. “Strain” means “to exert effort” (Merriam-Webster Dic-
tionary).
3: Correct. That is the meaning given by The Merriam-Webster
Dictionary.
4: Correct. “To render” means “to make” or “to cause to become”
(Merriam-Webster Dictionary).
Gabarito 1E, 2E, 3C, 4C
TEXT III
Towards a fairer distribution
Translation and interpretation in matters of diplomacy is
tricky. Language enthusiasts particularly enjoy the story
of the Treaty of Wuchale, signed between Ethiopia and
Italy in 1889. The text didn’t read the same in Amharic
and Italian. The former guaranteed Ethiopia’s king Menelik
II a good measure of autonomy in conducting foreign
affairs. The latter established an Italian protectorate with
no exibility. The culprit: one verb, forming a permissive
clause in Amharic and a mandatory one in Italian.
Six years later, the differing interpretations led to war.
Ethiopia won.
If only the Ethiopians and Italians had modern translators
at their side. Treaty translation is big business today.
The European Union, for example, spends an estimated
€300m annually on translating between its 23 ofcial
languages. (While this is a big chunk of money, it’s less
than 1% of the EU’s annual budget.) Three of those—
English, French, and German—are working languages
in most meetings. In reality, English is most commonly
used. But because each document must be faithfully
recreated in each of the EU’s 23 languages, creating
authentic versions can be expensive and time-consuming.
Thankfully, most problems are dealt with in procès-verbal,
a way to introduce technical corrections to treaties
without revisiting
negotiations. It might still delay matters. Last year, for
example, Ireland’s ratication of an EU treaty was delayed
by grammatical errors in the Irish version. There are
obvious trade-offs to language equality, but the EU has
calculated that the delays and costs are worth it.
The United Nations should revisit its own calculations. It
has just six ofcial and two working languages. The task
of translation here in Geneva, home to most UN organs,
is thus decidedly simpler. The UN’s ofcial languages are
geographically diverse—combined, native speakers of
Arabic, English, French, Mandarin, Russian and Spanish
number over 2.2 billion. But the two working languages
are bound to tradition. The persistence of French is
attributed to its history as the “language of diplomacy”.
In the hallways of the New York headquarters, English is
(naturally) favored, and French is preferred in Geneva.
Treaties registered with the United Nations Treaty Series
are always translated into French and English. Documents
are always provided in French and English. This city’s
Geneva Conventions, written in equally authentic French
and English versions, laid part of the groundwork for the
international system.
Towards a fairer distribution. Available at:
com>. Retrieved on: Aug. 15. 2019, with adaptations.
(IADES Diplomacia 2019) Concerning the grammatical and
semantic aspects of the text, mark the following items as
right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) The passage “the text didn’t read the same” (line 4)
considers that the treaty had different meanings in
Amharic and in Italian.
(2) The word “former” (line 5) refers to someone who
created the Treaty.
(3) The word “latter” (line 7) relates to how slow the
establishment of the Italian protectorate was.
(4) Mistranslation of a verb led Ethiopia and Italy to war.
1: Correct. The expression “to (not) read the same” means “to have the
same meaning” when one refers to written text.
2: Wrong. The word “former” refers to “Amharic”.
3: Wrong. It refers to “Italian”.
4: Correct. “The culprit: one verb, forming a permissive clause in
Amharic and a mandatory one in Italian. Six years later, the differing
interpretations led to war. Ethiopia won.”
Gabarito 1C, 2E, 3E, 4C
(IADES Diplomacia 2019) Considering the grammatical and
semantic aspects of the text, mark the following items as
right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) In the passage “The United Nations should revisit its
own calculations.” (line 29), the underlined word can
be correctly replaced with reconsider.
(2) “Trade-offs” (line 27) means “bad deals”.
(3) The phrase “Bound to” (line 36) means “forced to keep
a promise to”.
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MARK HUGHES, ANTHONY ROSENBERG E RODRIGO ARMSTRONG
116
(4) The expression “laid […] the groundwork for” (line
44) can be correctly replaced with prepared.
1: Correct. That is one of the meanings of the verb “to revisit”, according
to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
2: Wrong. The expression means a balancing of factors all of which
are not attainable at the same time” (Merriam-Webster Dictionary)
3: Correct. The expression means inextricably connected to.
4. Correct. That is precisely the denition of this expression (Merriam-
-Webster Dictionary).
Gabarito 1C, 2E, 3C, 4C
TEXT IV
On any person who desires such queer prizes, New York
will bestow the gift of loneliness and the gift of privacy.
It is this largess that accounts for the presence within the
city’s walls of a considerable section of the population; for
the residents of Manhattan are to a large extent strangers
who have pulled up stakes somewhere and come to
town, seeking sanctuary or fulllment or some greater
or lesser grail. The capacity to make such dubious gifts
is a mysterious quality of New York. It can destroy an
individual, or it can fulll him, depending a good deal
on luck. No one should come to New York to live unless
he is willing to be lucky.
[…]
There are roughly three New Yorks. There is, rst, the new
York of the man or woman who was born here, who takes
the city for granted and accepts its size and its turbulence
as natural and inevitable. Second, there is the New York
of the commuter—the city that is devoured by locusts
each day and spat out each night. Third, there is the
New York of the person who was born somewhere else
and came to New York in quest of something. Of these
three trembling cities the greatest is the last—the city of
nal destination, the city that is a goal. It is this third city
that accounts for New York’s high-strung disposition, its
poetical deportment, its dedication to the arts, and its
incomparable achievements. Commuters give the city its
tidal restlessness; natives give it solidity and continuity;
but the settlers give it passion. And whether it is a farmer
arriving from Italy to set up a small grocery store in a slum,
or a young girl arriving from a small town in Mississippi to
escape the indignity of being observed by her neighbors,
or a boy arriving from the Corn Belt with a manuscript in
his suitcase and a pain in his heart, it makes no difference:
each embraces New York with the intense excitement of
rst love, each absorbs New York with the fresh eyes of
an adventurer, each generates heat and light to dwarf the
Consolidated Edison Company.
White, E.B. (1999) Here is New York. New York: The Little Book
Room, with adaptations.
(IADES Diplomacia 2019) Considering the text, mark the
following items as right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) The word “largess” (line 3) could be correctly replaced
with generosity.
(2) The word “bestow” (line 2) could be correctly replaced
with exchange.
(3) The fragment “to dwarf the” (line 36) could be correctly
replaced with that contribute to.
(4) The fragment “sanctuary or fulllment or some greater
or lesser grail” (lines 7 and 8) could be correctly
replaced with refuge or satisfaction or some greater
or lesser prize.
1: Correct. That is the meaning of “largess” (Merriam-Webster Dic-
tionary).
2: Wrong. “To bestow” means “to convey as a gift” (Merriam-Webster
Dictionary).
3: Wrong. The expression means “to cause to appear smaller or to seem
inferior” ((Merriam-Webster Dictionary).
4: Correct. All of the substitutions are proper synonyms.
Gabarito 1C, 2E, 3E, 4C
(IADES Diplomacia 2019) Mark the following items as right
(C) or wrong (E) in summarizing the views of the author
of the text.
(1) Loneliness and privacy are unambiguously valuable
gifts.
(2) While Native Americans gave New York solidity and
continuity, European settlers gave it passion.
(3) The inux of people from other places is eroding New
York’s unique character.
(4) A young girl arriving in New York from a small town
in Mississippi will embrace New York with the intense
excitement of rst love, even though she will now
suffer the indignity of being observed by her neighbors.
1: Wrong. The two words represent the negative and positive conse-
quences of becoming anonymous in such a city.
2: Wrong. By settlers the text means those people who were not born
in New York but have come to live there, be them from other regions
of the United States or from abroad.
3: Wrong. Those are the people who give New York its strength and
unique qualities: “Of these three trembling cities the greatest is the
last—the city of nal destination, the city that is a goal”.
4. Wrong. The young girl in the text was observed by her neighbors
in Mississippi.
Gabarito 1E, 2E, 3E, 4E
Text I
With this report, our aim is to present initial reections
on diplomacy in the digital age. In the ongoing debate
amongst international relations scholars, information
and communication technology (ICT) experts, digital
strategists, social media advocates and others, the rst
question for us is: what is happening to diplomacy? And
the obvious answer is what has always happened to it:
diplomacy is responding to changes in the international
and domestic environments, in the main centres of
authority, particularly states, and in the character of
societies at home and abroad.
“Newness” in diplomacy today has everything to do with
the application of new communications technologies to
diplomacy. This issue goes right to the heart of diplomacy’s
core functions, including negotiation, representation and
communication. Given the centrality of communication
in diplomacy, it is hardly surprising that the rise of social
media should be of interest to practitioners of diplomacy.
Most of them, like people outside diplomatic culture, are
in the process of adjusting their “analogue” habits and
nding their own voice in a new information sphere.
This takes time, and for technological enthusiasts to
simply proclaim the arrival of a “new statecraft” in the
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2. INGLêS
form of what is variously termed e-diplomacy, digital
diplomacy, cyber diplomacy and “twiplomacy” is too
simplistic.
Paradoxically, greater complexity encourages shallow,
hurried analyses and the search for simple explanations
about what is happening to diplomacy as the regulating
mechanism of the society of states. As in other epochs
of fast technological change, the lure of quick xes
addressing multifaceted processes of change in diplomacy
appears almost irresistible.
Brian Hocking and Jan Melissen. Diplomacy in the digital age.
2015, p. 9. Internet: (adapted).
(Cespe Diplomacia 2018) Decide whether the following
statements are right (C) or wrong (E) according to text I.
(1) For the authors, the changes brought about by new
communications technologies are affecting the
essence of diplomacy as never before.
(2) The text lists three different kinds of change which
affect diplomacy: those originated in international
and domestic scenarios; those coming from the main
centres of authority; and the ones which are related
to societal transformations.
(3) Due to the close relationship that exists between
diplomacy and communication, diplomats have
managed to bring their communicative skills to
perfection in order to work autonomously with new
digital media.
(4) The authors are critical of the kind of explanation
analysts have given for the phenomenon of diplomacy
in the digital age, which, according to the authors,
should be approached more thoroughly.
1: Wrong. The text says diplomacy is adapting to change as it has
always done: “And the obvious answer is what has always happened to
it: diplomacy is responding to changes in the international and domestic
environments, in the main centres of authority, particularly states, and
in the character of societies at home and abroad”.
2: Correct. “And the obvious answer is what has always happened to it:
diplomacy is responding to changes in the international and domestic
environments, in the main centres of authority, particularly states, and
in the character of societies at home and abroad”
3: Wrong. Diplomats are still learning to manage digital media: “Most
of them, like people outside diplomatic culture, are in the process of
adjusting their “analogue” habits and nding their own voice in a new
information sphere. This takes time […].”
4: Correct. “[…] for technological enthusiasts to simply proclaim the
arrival of a “new statecraft” in the form of what is variously termed
e-diplomacy, digital diplomacy, cyber diplomacy and “twiplomacy”
is too simplistic.”
Gabarito 1E, 2C, 3E, 4C
(Cespe Diplomacia 2018) Decide whether the following
statements are right (C) or wrong (E) according to text I.
(1) In the rst paragraph, the words “ongoing” (R.2) and
“advocates” (R.5) can be correctly and respectively
replaced by far-reaching and lawyers without this
changing the meaning of the passage.
(2) The passage “what has always happened to it:”
(R.7) can be correctly replaced by what has always
happened to it, which means that or by what has
always happened to it, which is to say.
(3) In the end of the second paragraph, the authors express
the opinion that the so-called ‘new statecraft’ (R.22),
also known as “digital diplomacy” (R.23), is “too
simplistic” (R.24). E
(4) The passage “the lure of quick fixes addressing
multifaceted processes of change” (R. 29 and 30)
could be replaced by the temptation of nding easy
solutions for manifold processes of change and this
would still keep the paragraph coherent.
1: Wrong. In this context, the two words mean “current” and “enthu-
siasts”, respectively.
2: Correct. The substitution of the colon for the non-dening relative
clause maintains meaning.
3: Wrong. The authors state that the act of acting proclaiming the
existence of a new form of statecraft is too simplistic.
4: Correct. According to The Merriam-Webster Dictionary, one of the
meanings of “lure” is “appeal”, which is the case here. Similarly, the
expressions “quick xes” and “easy solutions” are also equivalent.
Finally, “multifaceted” and “manifold” both mean “marked by diversity”,
according to Merriam-Webster.
Gabarito 1E, 2C, 3E, 4C
Text II
What do politically minded visitors to a zoo feel when
they stand in front of the panda bear’s cage? The previously
cute panda may suddenly strike them as strange – there is
an intuitive knowledge that this panda, constantly eating
bamboo in front of a cheerful and amazed audience, is
deeply charged with political agency.
Estrangement from the familiar is the start of every
theory. Unfortunately, it was only recently that political
scientists have embarked on exploring diplomacy
systematically as a conceptual phenomenon, generating
one unquestionable axiom: that of representation. As
with any axiom, it is unprovable, but it is the taken-
for-granted starting point for all further research: most
scholars agree on the basic postulate that diplomacy is
about people representing polities (most often a state)
vis-à-vis another polity.
One should mention that the notion of political
representation is a theoretical axiom applicable to all
countries, but let us explore the example given by the
panda bear and, consequently, by China a little further.
It is often correctly perceived that the speech of an
accredited Chinese ambassador is attributable to the
Chinese government. It is “China” who spoke, not (just)
the individual person. This is the basis of representation.
But what is often forgotten is how non-human material
can represent polities – they are also diplomats, but mute.
It may sound ridiculous, if not provocative, to posit that
the panda bear in the zoo is China. But this is merely
an extension of the basic premise of diplomatic theory.
Why should only human individuals be able to represent
a state? In periods of conict, ags (material objects)
are burnt, walls are erected, monuments torn down; in
times of better political mood, heads of states exchange
precious gifts with each other, while embassy buildings
in foreign countries enjoy a “sacred” legal status. Flags,
walls, monuments, gifts, and the embassies re-present,
i.e. “bring into presence,” a country, and actions toward
these objects address the states they represent.
And there are good grounds for sensing a foreign policy
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118
tool in the giant pandas that now reside in zoos all over the
world. They prominently embody China’s modern public
diplomacy; they are non-human material deliberately
deployed by the Chinese government to the soil of other
states; and they have, at times, served as the primary
means of expressing inter-state sentiment – during times
of both conict and cooperation —, in instances of the
so-called “panda diplomacy”.
Andreas Pacher. The Diplomat. Nov./2017. Internet: (adapted).
(Cespe Diplomacia 2018) Decide whether the following
statements are right (C) or wrong (E) according to text II.
(1) The author starts his text by mentioning people who
stand apart from most because of their understanding
of the political implications which may arise from the
presence of panda bears in countries other than China.
(2) The passage “The previously cute panda may suddenly
strike them as strange” (R. 2 and 3) indicates that
people may become aware that panda bears kept
outside China can be signs of international political
forces.
(3) One can correctly infer from the text that the author
is against the exploitation of animals for political or
diplomatic ends.
(4) The view on representation expressed by the
author is broader and more exible than the one
which considers that “diplomacy is about people
representing polities” (R.14).
1: Annulled. This question was originally considered correct, given
that it refers to the “politically minded visitors”. But the text then talks
about “intuitive knowledge” rather than “understanding”, as stated in
the question. This dissonance renders the question ambiguous.
2: Correct. The verb “to strike” in this case means “to come into
awareness”.
3: Wrong. There is no reference to how the panda bears are treated
in the text.
4: Correct. This view is expressed throughout the second-to-last and
last paragraphs in the references to animals and inanimate objects.
Gabarito 1Anulado, 2C, 3E, 4C
(Cespe Diplomacia 2018) Considering the grammatical and
semantic aspects of text II, decide whether the following
statements are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) The point made by the author in “Unfortunately, it was
(…) that of representation” (R. 8 to 11) would remain
the same if this passage were rewritten as Sadly, only
recently have political scientists started to actively
engage in the study of diplomacy as a conceptual
phenomenon, and this delay has led to the irrefutable
axiom of representation.
(2) As used in the text, the word “posit” (R.26) is
synonymous with ignore.
(3) In “But this is merely an extension” (R. 27 and 28),
the word “this” refers to the statement that “the panda
bear in the zoo is China” (R.27).
(4) Because the word “deployed” (R.40) can be related to
the meaning of putting troops or weapons in a position
ready to be used, in the text it reinforces the idea that
panda bears have acquired political and strategic
signicance.
1: Wrong. In the original sentence, it is the exploration of diplomacy as
a conceptual phenomenon that has led to the axiom of representation,
not the delay to do so.
2: Wrong. The verb “to posit” means “to suggest as an explanation”.
3: Wrong. The word “this” refers to the act of positing that the panda
bear in the zoo is China, whereas the passage “the panda bear in the zoo
is China” is merely the sentence object of the verb “to posit”.
4: Correct. The use of “deployed” creates the metaphor expressed in
the question.
Gabarito 1E, 2E, 3E, 4C
Text III
Much has been written about the superlative qualities
desirable in diplomacy. Few persons can embody them
all, but the greater part of a diplomat’s armoury can be
developed and improved by sincere application guided
by advice and example of his/her seniors. One must be
concerned primarily with the foundations on which to
build. For these the selectors must be satised there is
a hard core to the applicant’s personality. On it will rest
the courage, toughness in confrontation, patience and
perseverance without which many more brilliant gifts can
come to grief. Contrary to popular belief, diplomacy is not
a career for the compliant. It often imposes on an ofcer
the duty of defending the interests of his/her country
in places not of his/her choice, where he/she must be
prepared to withstand the moral attrition to which he/she
may be exposed in the front line of international politics.
Lord Gore-Booth and Desmond Pakenham. Satow’s guide to
diplomatic practice. 5.th ed. London and New York: Longman,
1979, p. 79 (adapted)
(Cespe Diplomacia 2018) Considering the grammatical and
semantic aspects of text III, decide whether the following
items are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) The word “armoury” (R.3) can be correctly replaced
by arsenal since both words can be used in the context
to indicate the skills a diplomat should have.
(2) In “On it will rest the courage” (R.8), the pronoun “it”
refers to “the applicant’s personality” (R.7).
(3) The expression “come to grief” (R.10) means to end
in failure.
(4) The passage “Contrary to popular (…) for the
compliant” (R. 10 and 11) can be correctly rewritten as
In opposition to what most people believe, a yielding
person is not suited to a career in diplomacy without
this changing the meaning of the text.
1: Correct. Both words create the metaphor related to the weapons or
tools a diplomat should have.
2: Annulled. The word “it” really refers to the expression “hard core”,
but, semantically, this “hard core” is part of the applicant’s personality.
Hence the ambiguity of the question.
3: Correct. That is precisely the denition given by The Oxford Dictionary.
4: Correct. The word “yielding” here has the meaning of “someone who
gives in”, while the word “compliant” means “someone who follows
other people’s wishes”.
Gabarito 1C, 2Anulada, 3C, 4C
Text IV
A central conjecture of the social studies of nance is that
equipment matters: it changes the nature of the economic
agent, of economic action, and of markets.
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119
2. INGLêS
Consider, for example, physical equipment such as the
stock ticker or trading screens connected in electronic
networks, which circumvent the most basic of all bodily
limitations – the inability to be in two places at once.
They made ne-grained knowledge of price movements
available in close to real time to geographically dispersed
market participants. Alex Preda conjectures, for instance,
that the ticker helped prompt the rise of “chartism”
or “technical analysis”: the belief – still widespread –
that patterns can be found in price graphs that have
predictive value. Actors’ equipment goes beyond physical
technologies: their “conceptual equipment” also matters,
or so the social studies of nance posit. Financial markets
are complicated places. Given the limited memory and
computational capacity of the human brain, economic
agents must develop and acquire systematic ways of
making sense of markets. Organizations must develop
procedures for interacting with markets, and to an
increasing extent those procedures are implemented
in algorithms in automated pricing, trading and risk-
management systems.
Sometimes, the ways of thinking, procedures, and
algorithms that are employed derive from financial
economics. Probably more often, however, practitioners’
ways of thinking and associated ways of acting have no
direct connection to “academic” economics or indeed
are regarded by economists as mistaken. Chartism is an
example of the latter: nancial economists regard it as
on a par with astrology, but many traders take it seriously,
and act on the basis of it.
“Public facts”, such as the LIBOR1, technical equipment,
graphical presentations, and “conceptual equipment”
are all aspects of the diverse cognitive and calculative
processes that take place in nancial markets. These
processes are “distributed” in the sense that a given task
is often performed not by a single unaided human but by
multiple human beings, objects, and technical systems. To
understand cognition that involves multiple collaborating
human beings and/or interaction with objects and
technical systems, one must go beyond the psychological
or cognitive science analysis of the individual “bounded
by the skin”.
As Hutchins puts it, “a group performing [a] cognitive
task may have cognitive properties that differ from the
cognitive properties of any individual”.
*LIBOR stands for London interbank offered rate. The interest
rate at which banks offer to lend funds (wholesale money)
to one another in the international interbank market (source:
Financial Times). Donald MacKenzie. Material Markets. New
York: Oxford University Press, 2009, p. 13-6 (adapted)
(Cespe Diplomacia 2018) Considering the grammatical and
semantic aspects of text IV, decide whether the following
items are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) According to the text, automated trading and other
new technologies have made nancial economics
hegemonic among traders as a tool to interpret the
gyrations of the nancial Market.
(2) It may be inferred from the text that Hutchins posits
that the complexity of nancial markets calls for
analysis based on groupthink, as psychological or
cognitive science analysis of the individual is clearly
insufcient.
(3) Using based on instead of “on the basis of” (R.31)
would not alter the general meaning of the sentence.
(4) The expression “on a par with” (R.30) means
competing.
1: Wrong. Chartism is still used by many analysts: “Probably more
often, however, practitioners’ ways of thinking and associated ways of
acting have no direct connection to “academic” economics or indeed
are regarded by economists as mistaken”
2: Wrong. “Groupthink” has a specic denition: “a pattern of thought
characterized by self-deception, forced manufacture of consent, and
conformity to group values and ethics” (Merriam-Webster Dictionary)
3: Correct. The two expressions are synonymous.
4: Wrong. The expression “on a par with” means “at the same level
or standard as (someone or something else)”. (Merriam-Webster
Dictionary)
Gabarito 1E, 2E, 3C, 4E
Text V
Ages ago, I acquired two recordings that inspire a feeling
of weirdness whenever I listen to them, or even think
about them. Both are performances of the great Lerner
and Loewe musical My Fair Lady in languages other than
English. Each of them has a special twist of irony. At the
core of the original story is how the coarse Cockney girl
Liza Doolittle is as a challenge, taken in by the insufferably
smug but utterly enthralled professor Henry Higgins, and
through painful exercises – “The rain in Spain falls mainly
in the plain” – acquires such an impeccably upper-class
Oxbridge way of speaking English that at her (and his)
ultimate test, a posh ball that she attends incognito,
drifting among the cream of British society, the keenest
linguistic sleuth in the land dances with this mysterious
beauty and in the end declares her too good to be true,
and hence not English elite at all, but Hungarian!
The whole idea of de-anglicizing this story strikes me as
really nutty – and yet there they are, those recordings on
my shelf. And so, on what wet plains do those heavy,
drenching rains mainly fall, in Mi Bella Dama? And in
the Hungarian version, to what elite nationality is the too-
good to-be-true unrecognized Cockney girl assigned? Of
course, the truly strange part in both cases is that the whole
time she is speaking Spanish or Hungarian, the charade
is maintained that she is actually speaking English, and,
unlike most plays or movies where one language is made
to pass for another, the linguistic medium here is not just
an incidental fact, but the very crux of the entire plot. I
suppose the suspension of disbelief involved is no more
strained than our willingness to accept as “reality” a story
that is occasionally interrupted by the actors’ breaking
into lyrical song, and then, as suddenly as it started, the
singing is over and apparent normalcy resumes on stage.
Douglas R. Hofstadter. Le ton beau de Marot: in praise of
the music of language. New York: Basic Books, 1997, p. 198
(adapted)
(Cespe Diplomacia 2018) In text V, without altering the general
meaning of the sentence, “enthralled” (R.8) could be
replaced by (mark right – C – or wrong – E)
(1) bewitched.
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MARK HUGHES, ANTHONY ROSENBERG E RODRIGO ARMSTRONG
120
(2) captivated.
(3) eccentric.
(4) colorful.
1 – bewitched: correct; 2 – captivated: correct; 3 – eccentric: wrong;
4 – colorful: wrong.
According to The Merriam-Webster Dictionary, the word “enthralled”
means: 1: to hold spellbound: charm; 2: to hold in or reduce to slavery.
In the context of the article, the rst meaning is the one used.
Gabarito 1C, 2C, 3E, 4E
(Cespe Diplomacia 2018) Considering the grammatical and
semantic aspects of text V, decide whether the following
items are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) From the author’s account, it can be inferred that the
plot of My Fair Lady is an homage to British social
class structure.
(2) The stage performance of My Fair Lady is punctuated
by musical numbers.
(3) The word “sleuth” (R.13) is used in a disparaging way.
(4) The author thinks that the most important point of the
plot of My Fair Lady gets lost in translation.
1: Wrong. The author seems to believe My Fair Lady lends criticism to
such class structure: “At the core of the original story is how the coarse
Cockney girl Liza Doolittle is as a challenge, taken in by the insufferably
smug but utterly enthralled professor Henry Higgins”, where the words
“coarse” and “Cockney” mean “of ordinary or inferior value” and “a
native of London and especially of the East End of London” respectively,
whereas “smug” means “arrogant”.
2: Correct. “I suppose the suspension of disbelief involved is no
more strained than our willingness to accept as “reality” a story that
is occasionally interrupted by the actors’ breaking into lyrical song”.
3: Wrong. “Sleuth” means “detective”.
4: Correct. “ […] the truly strange part in both cases is that the whole
time she is speaking Spanish or Hungarian, the charade is maintained
that she is actually speaking English, and, unlike most plays or movies
where one language is made to pass for another, the linguistic medium
here is not just an incidental fact, but the very crux of the entire plot.”
Gabarito 1E, 2C, 3E, 4C
Text VI
President Trump’s remarks in recent weeks – contending
that fellow NATO members “owe [the United States] a
tremendous amount of money,” labeling the European
Union a trade “foe” and calling Russian President Vladimir
Putin “a good competitor,” for example – have heightened
the anxiety of observers who question the resilience of
the postwar order. Some focus on the challenges posed
by external actors – whether the selective revisionism of
China as a complex competitor-cum-partner or the more
confrontational behavior of Russia, which appears to have
calculated that it can obtain more short-term inuence
by destabilizing the system than by integrating into it.
Others are more concerned with internal stresses. Trump’s
“America First” approach to foreign policy – which
has surfaced and amplied simmering economic and
demographic anxieties among a signicant segment of
the American public – articulates a sharp critique of the
order’s alleged strategic benets to the United States,
its leading architect. Across the pond, meanwhile,
increasingly powerful populist forces from a broad
ideological spectrum are contesting the legitimacy of the
European project.
While these various accounts go a long way in explaining
the postwar order’s woes, they discount an important
explanation: having thus far succeeded in achieving
its foundational goal – averting a third world war – the
postwar order lacks imperatives of comparable urgency
to impel its modernization.
It is misleading to characterize the postwar era as a
“long peace.” Proxy wars, civil wars and genocides have
killed tens of millions over the past three-quarters of a
century. Nor do observers agree why a war between great
powers has not occurred during that time: they have
offered explanations as diverse as “war aversion”, nuclear
weapons, the U.S. alliance system and Enlightenment
values.
Still, the headline accomplishment remains: no global
conagration has occurred under the aegis of the postwar
order. However, this is not to suggest that the system is
performing well; to the contrary, its limitations are widely
understood and increasingly apparent. It is insufciently
responsive to and reective of the evolving balance of
power, which continues to shift eastward.
The modernization of the world order would ideally result
from farsighted diplomacy. It is more likely, though, that
policymakers will do little more than push for incremental
improvements to an inadequate system, thereby enabling
the aforementioned forces —ranging from external
challenges to populist uprisings – to continue testing its
foundations. The potential result of indenite erosion
– a vacuum in order, without a coherent alternative to
replace it – is unpalatable. In a nuclear age, though, it
is terrifying to consider what might have to occur for a
new order to emerge.
Ali Wyne. A new world order will likely arise only from
calamity. The Washington Post, jul./2018 (adapted)
(Cespe Diplomacia 2018) Considering the grammatical and
semantic aspects of text VI, decide whether the following
items are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) The phrase “obtain more” (R. 10 and 11) could be
correctly replaced by accrue, without altering the
meaning of the passage.
(2) The word “aegis” (R.36) could be replaced by auspices
in this particular context.
(3) The idiom “Across the pond” (R.19) could be replaced
by Overseas, without altering the meaning of the
sentence.
(4) The word “simmering” (R.15) could be replaced by
vocal without altering the general meaning of the
passage.
1 – Correct. According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, “to accrue”
means “to accumulate or be added periodically”.
2 – Correct. According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, “aegis”
means “auspices, sponsorship”.
3 – Wrong. The expression “across the pond” means “the other side of
the Atlantic Ocean”, i.e., Europe, not “overseas”, which is much more
general. (The Merriam-Webster Dictionary).
4 – Wrong. The verb “to simmer” means “to be in a state of incipient
development” or “just bellow boiling point” (Merriam-Webster Dictio-
nary), which in this case is the opposite of “vocal”.
Gabarito 1C, 2C, 3E, 4E
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121
2. INGLêS
Text I
1 Diplomacy has never enjoyed a wholly favourable
reputation. Often confused with its clandestine cousin,
espionage, it has for centuries been associated with deviousness
4 and duplicity. Only the other day, when I was giving a talk, a
woman came up to me afterwards and expressed astonishment
that I had actually given straight answers to questions. “I
7 expected”, she said, “the usual wishy-washy that you get from
diplomats.” In modern times, diplomacy has also become
associated with appeasement of one kind or another, with
10 kowtowing to foreign governments.
These criticisms have acquired the rancid avour of
class warfare, a deeply ingrained British pastime. For centuries,
13 diplomacy recruited from the aristocracy and upper classes
When I joined the Foreign Ofce in 1966, recruitment had
become more widely meritocratic; but it was overwhelmingly
16 a male meritocracy drawn from a few elite universities. Today,
the recruitment pool is vastly bigger in every way. But, the old
myths persist. The image of a diplomat clad in pinstripes,
19 quafng champagne, and leading the good life in a magnicent
embassy, dies hard.
Christopher Meyer. Getting Our Way: 500 Years of Adventure and Intrigue: the Inside Story of British Diplomacy. London:
Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2009, p. 6 (adapted).
(Diplomacia – 2017 – CESPE) Decide whether the following
statements are right(C)or wrong(E) according to textI.
(1) It can be correctly inferred from the text that there tends to
be presently more female diplomats, as well as diplomats
with more diverse social backgrounds, than in1966.
(2) It can be correctly concluded from the text that the
recruitment methods adopted in the past have fuelled
suspicion against diplomats and created a fallacious
idea about their work.
(3) For the author, the bad reputation diplomacy holds has
to do with the frequent international negotiations in
which diplomats deal with foreign ofcials.
(4) The woman mentioned in the rst paragraph didn’t
expect the author to reveal his true opinions.
1: Correct. “When I joined the Foreign Ofce in 1966, recruitment had
become more widely meritocratic; but it was overwhelmingly a male
meritocracy drawn from a few elite universities. Today, the recruitment pool
is vastly bigger in every way.” The expression “every way” implies that young
diplomats come from many different universities and that there are more
women that before, once the comparison relates to the previous clause.
2: Correct. “These criticisms have acquired the rancid avour of class
warfare, a deeply ingrained British pastime. For centuries, diplomacy
recruited from the aristocracy and upper classes.”
3: Wrong. In the sentence “In modern times, diplomacy has also become
associated with appeasement of one kind or another, with kowtowing
to foreign governments”, the word “kowtowing” means “Act in an
excessively subservient manner”. Thus, the bad reputation results from
more than just engaging in negotiations.
4: Annulled. This question was annulled because the expression “wishy-
washy” does not imply one is lying, but merely avoiding a direct answer.
Gabarito 1C, 2C, 3E, 4ANULADA
(Diplomacia – 2017 – CESPE) Considering the grammatical and
semantic aspects of text I, decide whether the following
items are right (C) or wrong(E).
(1) The words “clad” (R. 18) and“ quafng”(R.19) could
be correctly replaced by dressed and sipping without
this altering the meaning of the sentence, although
this substitution would make the text less humorous.
(2) There would be no change in the meaning of the passage
from “Often”(R.2) to “duplicity”(R.4) if it were replaced
by Even though it is often confused with espionage,
which is its illegitimate cousin, diplomacy has been
linked with misbehaviour and duplicity for centuries.
(3) The excerpt “that you get from diplomats”(R.7and8) could
be correctly replaced by which one gets from diplomats
without this changing the meaning of the text.
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MARK HUGHES, ANTHONY ROSENBERG E RODRIGO ARMSTRONG
122
(4) The recruitment policy of the British diplomatic service
was designed and planned by elite academics and
university intellectuals.
1: Wrong. The word “clad” does mean “dressed”, but the verb to
“to quaff” means “to drink (something, especially an alcoholic drink)
heartily”, while “to sip” means “to drink (something) by taking small
mouthfuls.”
2: Wrong. The original sentence acts as an explanation for the sentence
that came before, although the conjunction is omitted. The rewrite,
beginning with though, chances that relation to one of concession
regarding the clause that begins with “diplomacy has been linked…”.
3: Correct. “Which” can replace “that” when they act as relative
pronouns, and the usage of “you” as an indenite subject can be
replaced by more formal form “one”, which agrees with the 3rd person
singular.
4: Wrong. In the sentence “When I joined the Foreign Office in
1966, recruitment had become more widely meritocratic; but it was
overwhelmingly a male meritocracy drawn from a few elite universities”,
the expression “drawn from” means “recruited from”.
Gabarito 1E, 2E, 3C, 4E
Text II
1 When I joined the Foreign Ofce, I was astonished
at the lack of formal preparation for the job. In those days,
the Civil and Diplomatic Service entrance exams took place
4 in three stages, by the end of which hundreds of unsuccessful
candidates had been knocked out. Only a score or so survived
the nal stage to be admitted to the Foreign Ofce.
7 My induction course lasted about a month. Then,
one morning, I was taken to the West and Central Africa
Department, told that I would be responsible for
10 French-speaking African countries plus Liberia. And that
was that. I was now, at the tender age of twenty-two,
a wet-behind-the-ears but fully functioning British diplomat.
13 I was put unsparingly to the test in my rst month.
I was summoned to the ofce of the Minister of State,
a genial politician called George Thompson, who was about
16 to receive an ocial visitor from the Central African Republic.
I was there to interpret between English and French. The usual
pleasantries of a courtesy call were easy enough to translate.
19 But, just as I was beginning to relax, the ofcial told
Thompson that one of the main exports from his country
was roselle. What on earth was roselle? With panic rising
22 in my gorge, something made me blurt out “jute”. To my
horror, there ensued a lively conversation in which Thompson
said “jute” and the African minister Said roselle.
25 After the meeting, I raced back to my Ofce and
looked in my dictionary. Roselle was not there. I tried out
the mystery Word on a French friend, but he had not heard
28 of it either. But the next day, he called back. What was
a British minister doing, He asked, talking to a politician from
the Central African Republic about a plant that was used as
31 a diuretic and food-colouring agent? My heart sank. I saw my
career slipping beneath the waves before it had hardly begun.
“Oh, and by the way,” he added, “it’s also used sometimes as
34 a substitute for jute bre — if that’s of any interest to you.”.
Christopher Meyer. Getting Our Way: 500 years of adventure and intrigue: the inside story of british diplomacy. London:
Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2009, p. 7-9 (adapted).
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123
2. INGLêS
(Diplomacia – 2017 – CESPE) Considering the ideas and the
vocabulary of text II, decide whether the statements below
are right (C) or wrong(E).
(1) After all stages of the Civil and Diplomatic Service
entrance exams, the number of candidates admitted
was around 20.
(2) With the expression “And that was that”(R.10and11),the
author reinforces the idea indicated by “the lack of
formal preparation for the job” (R.2).
(3)The word “genial”(R.15) means unusually intelligent.
(4) It can be correctly inferred that, when it came to hiring,
the Foreign Ofce had a clear preference for bright
Young people.
1: Correct. “Around 20” is the meaning of “score” in “Only a score
or so survived the nal stage to be admitted to the Foreign Ofce.”
2: Correct. This expression is used to emphasize that the brief
preparation described in the two previous sentences suddenly came
to an end.
3: Wrong. “Genial” means “friendly and cheerful” (Oxford Dictionary).
4: Wrong. There is no mention of the candidates’ proles, except for
what Meyer mentions about himself.
Gabarito 1C, 2C, 3E, 4E
(Diplomacia – 2017 – CESPE) Decide whether the statements
below, which concern the ideas of text II and the
vocabulary used in it, are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) The fact that the author didn’t know the meaning
of the word “roselle” and translated it as “jute” was
prejudicial to the British Minister.
(2) The passage “a wet-behind-the-ears but fully
functioning British diplomat”(R.12)indicates that the
author’s inexperience didn’t prevent him from getting
a position of responsibility in the Foreign Ofce.
(3) From the author’s account, it can be correctly inferred
that he was expected to be able to translate from
French to English and vice versa, as part of his job as
a diplomat.
(4) The Word “unsparingly”(R.13) can be correctly
replaced by unmercifully, without this changing the
meaning of the text.
1: Wrong. Meyer got lucky and “jute” turned out to be one of the possible
meanings of “roselle”.
2: Correct. The expression “wet-behind-the-ears” means “lacking
experience”.
3: Correct. “I was summoned to the ofce of the Minister of State, a
genial politician called George Thompson, who was about to receive an
ofcial visitor from the Central African Republic. I was there to interpret
between English and French. The usual pleasantries of a courtesy call
were easy enough to translate.”
4: Correct. The verb “to spare” has, among its meanings, the following
“refrain from killing, injuring, or distressing”. Thus, if one is “unsparing”,
that person has no mercy or gives no respite.
Gabarito 1E, 2C, 3C, 4C
Text III
1 At the end of every summer, the French diplomatic
service summons all its ambassadors from around the world
to Paris for a week of brainstorming and ne cuisine. Usually,
4 the assembled crowd is monochrome, middle-aged and male.
Since 2015, however, it has been marked by silk scarves
and coloured jackets: in that year, nearly a third of the
7 ambassadorial corps was made up ofwomen,comparedto19%
in Britain and 26% in the United States.
Indeed, France has transformed the place of female
10 diplomats. Surely, this has not happened without an ofcial
push: a few years ago, in 2012, France decided to reserve
a share of top public-service appointments for women,
13 with a target of 40% by 2018.
Does a female ambassador change anything?
Besides the pressing linguistic question of whether to call
16 her Madame l’Ambassadrice (favoured by some younger
diplomats) or Madame l’Ambassadeur (which some prefer
in order to avoid being taken for an ambassador’swife),
19 the answer may be: not all that much. Perhaps most
importantly, a less male representation projects a less fusty
national image at a time when soft Power counts for evermore.
22 In fact, feminisation seems to be part of a broader French effort
to “renew our global diplomacy for the 21st century”,
said Laurent Fabius, the foreign minister, whose predecessor
25 but one was a woman, Michèle Alliot-Marie.
Nolongersomaleandstale.Internet:(adapted).
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124
(Diplomacia – 2017 – CESPE) Decide whether the statements
below, concerning the ideas and the vocabulary of text
III, are right (C) or wrong(E).
(1) In spite of some passages which might be taken as
ironic, it is correct to conclude that the text considers
the changes in French diplomacy to be positive.
(2) According to the text, the foreign minister Laurent
Fabius was appointed immediately after Mrs.Alliot-
Marie’ sterm.
(3) The mentioning of “necuisine”(R.3)suggests that the
French ambassadors were in Paris also to learn about
French gastronomy, due to its relevance in French
culture.
(4) The contrast between the images created by the
expressions “monochrome, middle-aged and male”
and “ silk scarves and coloured jackets” functions as
a rhetorical resource which reinforces the Idea that
French diplomacy is becoming a more feminine realm.
1: Correct. “Perhaps most importantly, a less male representation projects
a less fusty national image at a time when soft power counts for ever more.
In fact, feminisation seems to be part of a broader French effort to “renew
our global diplomacy for the 21st century”, said Laurent Fabius, the foreign
minister, whose predecessor but one was a woman, Michèle Alliot-Marie.”
2: Wrong. “Whose predecessor but one was a woman” means that the
immediate predecessor was a man.
3: Wrong. The goal of the gathering was “brainstorming”. The mention
to “ne cuisine” is part of the text’s lightheartedness.
4: Correct. In this passage, “monochrome” refers to the male diplomats’
attires, whereas the “colored jackets” refer to the female diplomats’
clothes, thus reinforcing the idea that the French foreign service is
becoming increasingly feminine.
Gabarito 1C, 2E, 3E, 4C
Text IV
1 When did Americans start sounding funny to English
ears? The story is not as simple as some believe. Thanks to a
remarkable kind of linguistic melting pot process, early
4Americans spoke with a standard dialect all their own that was
often met with approval by English observers, in contrast to
how certain American accents are sometimes judged today.
7From the early eighteenth century, while British
English speakers could easily reveal details about their
background through their speech, it was much harder to
10 pinpoint an American speaker’s background in the same way
Many described the American dialect of the day as being,
surprisingly, pretty close to the accepted British grammatical
13 standard of London “polite” society, even if there were some
accent differences and linguistic variation. While these would
have been indicators of lower status in England, in colonial
16 America speakers of all classes and regions might have used
these forms, diluting them as signs of social status.
Some fairly resilient linguistic myths have arisen as
19 folk explanations for why British and American dialects are the
way they are, including the often-cited belief that Shakespeare
sounded much more American than he did British, and thus
22 American English must be free from any modern linguistic
“corruption” that followed.
George Philip Krapp, among others, makes a
25 compelling argument against the theory that a transplanted
dialect or language suddenly has its linguistic development
arrested, so that examples like American English or Acadian
28 French must simply be more archaic than the dialects that
continued evolving in their home countries.
Far from being an isolated community, the American
31 colonies developed culturally and linguistically while being in
constant contact with the outside world and with a healthy ow
of immigrants from many different backgrounds. The truth is,
34 in the context of a linguistic melting pot, a kind of linguistic
leveling occurs, and a common mode of speech, or koine,
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2. INGLêS
emerges. No single dialect is really transplanted intact and
37 unchanging. American English is not eighteenth-century British
English frozen in time while British English varieties changed
in a different direction. American English behaves no
40 differently from any other dialect in this way; it develops and
innovates but also maintains certain linguistic characteristics
meaningful to its speech community, in the same way that
43 British English does.
But in order for linguistic innovation to really take
root, you need a bunch of colonial babies. The founding
46 generation of settlers wasn’t immediately followed by a huge
inux of immigrants with other dialects and languages until an
American koine was already mostly established by newer
49 generations of Americans, at which point more recent
immigrant waves began to adopt the prevailing ways of
speaking. Many eventually abandoned their native tongue and
52 assimilated into the wider linguistic community.
So by the time of the signing of the Declaration of
Independence, it’s clear Americans didn’t have to hold their
55 tongue with the British — they spoke with the national dialect
that had steadily evolved for at least two generations before
1776.
Chi Luu. When Did Colonial America Gain Linguistic Independence? Internet: .org> (adapted).
(Diplomacia – 2017 – CESPE) Decide whether the following
statements are right(C)or wrong(E) according to text IV.
(1) According to the text, the fact that social origin
was not as easy to identify based on the koine of
eighteenth-century Americans as was the case with
contemporary Britons reected the early American
colonies’ egalitarian ethos.
(2) It can be said from the text that to British ears,
contemporary American accents belie declining
grammar standards in America as compared to
Colonial times.
(3) The author criticizes Krapp’s argument that exemplars
of transplanted languages or dialects such as Acadian
French are more archaic than the original ones, which
continued evolving in their home countries.
(4) The author asserts that the early dialect of colonial
Americans was not inuenced and shaped by large
waves of immigrants from many origins.
1: Wrong. In the passage “Thanks to a remarkable kind of linguistic
melting pot process, early Americans spoke with a standard dialect all
their own that was often met with approval by English observers”, it
becomes clear that early Americans’ standard dialect came into being
naturally through the “melting pot” process rather than through an
egalitarian project.
2: Wrong. The verb “to belie” means “fail to give a true impression of
(something)”. In reality, contemporary Britons believe some American
accents and dialects are inferior.
3: Wrong. The author agrees with Krapp, who “makes a compelling
argument against the theory that a transplanted dialect or language
suddenly has its linguistic development arrested, so that examples like
American English or Acadian French must simply be more archaic than
the dialects that continued evolving in their home countries.”
4: Correct. “The founding generation of settlers wasn’t immediately
followed by a huge influx of immigrants with other dialects and
languages until an American koine was already mostly established by
newer generations of Americans, at which point more recent immigrant
waves began to adopt the prevailing ways of speaking. Many eventually
abandoned their native tongue and assimilated into the wider linguistic
community.”
Gabarito 1E, 2E, 3E, 4C
(Diplomacia – 2017 – CESPE) In text IV, without altering the
general meaning of the sentence, “pinpoint” (R.10) could
be replaced by(mark right—C— or wrong — E)
(1) ascertain.
(2) determine.
(3) compare.
(4) convey.
According to the Oxford Dictionary, “to pinpoint” is “nd
or identify with great accuracy or precision.” Therefore:
1: Correct. “To ascertain” means “ to nd (something) out for certain;
make sure of.”
2: Correct. “To determine” means “Ascertain or establish exactly by
research or calculation.”
3: Wrong. “To compare” means “Ascertain or establish exactly by
research or calculation.”
4: Wrong. “To convey” means “Make (an idea, impression, or feeling)
known or understandable.”
Gabarito 1C, 2C, 3E, 4E
(Diplomacia – 2017 – CESPE) Considering the grammatical and
semantic aspects of text IV, decide whether the following
items are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) The word “assimilated”(R.52)could be correctly
replaced by
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MARK HUGHES, ANTHONY ROSENBERG E RODRIGO ARMSTRONG
126
BLENDED, WITHOUT ALTERING THE MEANING OF THE
PASSAGE.
(2) The adjective “compelling” (R.25) could be replaced by
THOROUGH IN THIS PARTICULAR CONTEXT.
(3) The expression “hold their tongue with”(R.54and55)
could be replaced by uphold their dialect against
without altering the meaning of the sentence.
(4) The expression “a bunch of” (R.45) could be replaced
by a cluster of without altering the meaning of the
passage.
1: Correct. In this sentence, the both words mean “to become
integrated”.
2: Wrong. In this case, “compelling” means convincing, whereas
“thorough” means “complete”.
3: Wrong. The original passage means that Americans could be proud
of their version of English in relation to the British version, whereas
the second sentence means they did not have to “defend their dialect”.
4: Annulled. This question was annulled. “A bunch of” can mean “many”
and “a large group of”, whereas “a cluster of” means only “a group of”.
In the text, “a bunch of” is better interpreted as “many”. Thus, this is
an ambiguous question.
Gabarito 1C, 2E, 3E, 4ANULADA
Text V
As Hegel observed of the emerging democracies of the
nineteenth century, in the universe of modern political subjects
“what is to be authoritative…derives its authority, not at all
4 from force, only to a small extent from habit and custom, really
from insight and argument.” Under democracies, at least,
argumentation complements pure force and arbitrary choice as
7 a basic source of world-shaping decisions. Rationality itself has
Become a source of power; consensual political systems require
agreement in thought as well as acquiescence in behavior.
10 Twisting the liberalism of Hegel’s point in light of decades of
discussion of the politics of representation, we must ask how
any given claim comes to count as an insight and from what
13 source arguments derive their social force.
This problem hás been addressed most explicitly in the
sociology of knowledge. Recent social studies of science have
16 termed the epistemological standpoint that assumes a relation
between power and knowledge an “equivalence postulate”.
Barry Barnes and David Bloor, for example, describe this
19 position as follows:
“Our equivalence postulate is that all beliefs are on a
par with one another with respect to the causes of their
22 credibility. It is not that all beliefs are equally true or equally
false, but that regardless of truth and falsity the fact of their credibility
is to be seen as equally problematic…Regardless of
25 whether the sociologist evaluates a belief as true or rational, or
as false and irrational, he must search for the causes of its
credibility. Is a belief enjoined by the authorities of the society?
28 Is it transmitted by established institutions of socialization or
supported by accepted agencies of social control? Is it bound
up with patterns of vested interest?” (…)
31 Instead of looking for xed, universal Laws of logic
guaranteeing the connection of particular phenomena to general
concepts, sociologists of knowledge seek the learned,
34 contingent principles of thought actually used by human
groups. (…) To investigate signication and justication as
social practices, we have to explain why cognitive approaches
37 differ without appealing to the ‘facts’ of the world.
Paul N. Edwards. The Closed World: Computers and the Politics of DiscourseinColdWarAmerica.Cambridge:MITPress,1996(adapted).
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127
2. INGLêS
(Diplomacia – 2017 – CESPE) Considering the grammatical and
semantic aspects of text V, decide whether the following
items are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) The expression “on a par” (R. 20 and 21) means
competing.
(2) The text asserts that facts should be judged to be the
sole standard against which to dene beliefs.
(3) The word “contingent”(R.34) is synonymous with
necessary.
(4) The word “enjoined”(R.27) can not be replaced by
endorsed in this particular context.
1: Wrong. “On a par” means “at the same level”.
2: Wrong. “It is not that all beliefs are equally true or equally false, but
that regardless of truth and falsity the fact of their credibility is to be
seen as equally problematic… Regardless of whether the sociologist
evaluates a belief as true or rational, or as false and irrational, he must
search for the causes of its credibility”.
3: Wrong. In philosophy, “contingent” means “True by virtue of the
way things in fact are and not by logical necessity.”
4: Correct. In this case, both words means “supported”.
Gabarito 1E, 2E, 3E, 4C
Text I
1 On a visit to Beirut during the terrible civil war of
2 1975-1976 a French journalist wrote regretfully of the gutted
3 downtown area that “it had once seemed to belong to the
4 Orient of Chateaubriand and Nerval”. He was right about the
5 place, of course, especially so far as a European was
6 concerned. The Orient was almost a European invention, and
7 had been since antiquity a place of romance, exotic beings,
8 haunting memories and landscapes, remarkable experiences.
9 Now it was disappearing; in a sense it had happened, its time
10 was over.
11 Americans will not feel quite the same about the
12 Orient, which for them is much more likely to be associated
13 very differently with the Far East (China and Japan, mainly).
14 Unlike the Americans, the French and the British — less so the
15 Germans, Russians, Spanish, Portuguese, Italians, and Swiss —
16 have had a long tradition of what I shall be calling Orientalism,
17 a way of coming to terms with the Orient that is based on the
18 Orient’s special place in European Western experience. The
19 Orient is not only adjacent to Europe; it is also the place of
20 Europe’s greatest and richest and oldest colonies, the source of
21 its civilizations and languages, its cultural contestant, and one
22 of its deepest and most recurring images of the Other. In
23 addition, the Orient has helped to dene Europe (or the West)
24 as its contrasting image, idea, personality, experience. The
25 Orient is an integral part of European material civilization and
26 culture. Orientalism expresses and represents that part
27 culturally and even ideologically as a mode of discourse with
28 supporting institutions, vocabulary, scholarship, imagery,
29 doctrines, even colonial bureaucracies and colonial styles. In
30 contrast, the American understanding of the Orient will seem
31 considerably less dense.
32 To speak of Orientalism therefore is to speak mainly,
33 although not exclusively, of a British and French cultural
34 enterprise, a project whose dimensions take in such disparate
35 realms as the imagination itself, the whole of India and the
36 Levant, the spice trade, colonial armies and a long tradition of
37 colonial administrators, a formidable scholarly corpus,
38 innumerable Oriental “experts” and “hands”, an Oriental
39 professorate, many Eastern sects, philosophies, and wisdoms
40 domesticated for local European use — the list can be
41 extended more or less indenitely. From the beginning of the
42 nineteenth century until the end of World War II, France and
43 Britain dominated the Orient and Orientalism; since World
44 War II America has dominated the Orient, and approaches it as
45 France and Britain once did. Out of that closeness, whose
46 dynamic is enormously productive even if it Always
47 demonstrates the comparatively greater strength of the
48 Occident (British, French, or American), comes the large body
49 of texts I call Orientalist.
E. W. Said. Orientalism. New York: Pantheon, 1978, p. 1-4 (adapted).
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MARK HUGHES, ANTHONY ROSENBERG E RODRIGO ARMSTRONG
128
(Diplomacia – 2016 – CESPE) Decide whether the following
statements are right (C) or wrong (E) according to text I.
(1) The author asserts that the Orient, as Europeans tend
to see it, is a culturally ancient creation.
(2) The Portuguese as well as other European peoples
share the exact same Orientalist tradition as the British.
(3) Even though the Orient neighbours Europe, the
peoples of this region are the most likely to appear
as Europe’s Other.
(4) It can be said that the French journalist quoted in the
text was disappointed not to nd the landscape once
described by the referred writers.
1: Correct. “The Orient was almost a European invention, and had been
since antiquity a place of romance, exotic beings, haunting memories
and landscapes, remarkable experiences”.
2: Wrong. In the sentence “Unlike the Americans, the French and
the British — less so the Germans, Russians, Spanish, Portuguese,
Italians, and Swiss — have had a long tradition of what I shall be calling
Orientalism, a way of coming to terms with the Orient that is based on the
Orient’s special place in European Western experience”, the expression
“less so” means that those other nations did not experience the Orient
the same way as the British and the French.
3: Correct. “The Orient is not only adjacent to Europe; it is also the
place of Europe’s greatest and richest and oldest colonies, the source
of its civilizations and languages, its cultural contestant, and one of its
deepest and most recurring images of the Other”. Although this item
starts with a concessive conjunction, the message matches that of the
text regarding the issue of the “Other”.
4: Correct. That disappointment is expressed by the word “regretfully”
in “On a visit to Beirut during the terrible civil war of 1975-1976 a French
journalist wrote regretfully of the gutted downtown area that “it had
once seemed to belong to the Orient of Chateaubriand and Nerval”.
Gabarito 1C, 2E, 3C, 4C
(Diplomacia – 2016 – CESPE) Considering the grammatical and
semantic aspects of text I, decide whether the following
items are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) The word “Orientalist” (R.49) could be correctly
replaced by Orientalists.
(2) The texts dened by E. W. Said as Orientalist, albeit
numerous, always suggest the Occident’s superiority.
(3) The adjective “remarkable” (R.8) could be replaced
by signicant or uncanny in the context of the text.
(4) The expression “coming to terms with” (R.17) could be
replaced by assimilating, without altering the meaning
of the sentence.
1: Wrong. In English, adjectives have no plural form.
2: Correct. “Out of that closeness, whose dynamic is enormously
productive even if it always demonstrates the comparatively greater
strength of the Occident (British, French, or American), comes the large
body of texts I call Orientalist.”
3: Correct. In the sentence, the word implies that such experiences were
somehow supernatural or extraordinary. In addition, the word “uncanny”
means “Strange or mysterious, especially in an unsettling way.”
4: Annulled. This question was annulled. According to the Oxford
Dictionary, the expression “coming to terms with” means “come to
accept (a new and painful or difcult event or situation); reconcile
oneself to”. The word “assimilating” ts into this role problematically.
Gabarito 1E, 2C, 3C, 4 ANULADA
(Diplomacia – 2016 – CESPE) According to text I, decide whether
the following statements are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) The notion of Orientalism, which the author intends
to investigate, is built upon a volume of written texts
throughout the centuries.
(2) The Orient has taken part in molding the contemporary
European experience.
(3) The British and French tradition of Orientalism is
forged through the colonial experience and academic
corpora.
(4) Presently, America situates itself in a different position
towards the Orient, regarding British and French
perspectives.
1: Correct. That is the meaning of the expression “a formidable
scholarly corpus” in “[…]the whole of India and the Levant, the spice
trade, colonial armies and a long tradition of colonial administrators,
a formidable scholarly corpus, innumerable Oriental “experts” and
“hands”, an Oriental professorate, many Eastern sects, philosophies,
and wisdoms domesticated for local European use”
2: Correct. “[…] a long tradition of what I shall be calling Orientalism,
a way of coming to terms with the Orient that is based on the Orient’s
special place in European Western experience”.
3: Correct. “To speak of Orientalism therefore is to speak mainly,
although not exclusively, of a British and French cultural enterprise,
a project whose dimensions take in such disparate realms as the
imagination itself, the whole of India and the Levant, the spice trade,
colonial armies and a long tradition of colonial administrators, a
formidable scholarly corpus, innumerable Oriental “experts” and
“hands”, an Oriental professorate, many Eastern sects, philosophies,
and wisdoms domesticated for local European use”.
4: Wrong. “[…] since World War II America has dominated the Orient,
and approaches it as France and Britain once did.”
Gabarito 1C, 2C, 3C, 4E
(Diplomacia – 2016 – CESPE) In text I, without altering the
meaning of the sentence, the noun “realms” (R.35) could
be replaced by (mark right — C — or wrong — E):
(1) spheres.
(2) domains.
(3) grounds.
(4) divisions.
The meaning of the word “realm” is “A eld or domain of activity or
interest” (Oxford Dictionary).
1: Correct. In this case, “spheres” also means “eld or domain”.
2: Correct, as stated by the denition.
3: Annulled. One of the possible meanings of “ground” is “An area of
knowledge or subject of discussion or thought.” This denition ts into
the sentence ambiguously.
4: Wrong. The word “division” does not t into the above denition.
Gabarito 1C, 2C, 3ANULADA, 4E
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129
2. INGLêS
Text II
1 The way, today, we tell any of the tales of “voyage of
discovery”, is in terms of crossing and conquering space.
Cortés voyaged across space, found Tenochtitlán, and took it.
4 “Space”, in this way of telling things, is an expanse we travel
across.
We know “globalisation” in its current form is not the
7 result of a law of nature. It is a project. It is not a description
of the world as it is so much as an image in which the world is
being made.
10 This much is now well established in critiques of
today’s globalisation. But it is perhaps less often made explicit
that one of the crucial manoeuvres at work within it, to
13 convince us of the ineluctability of this globalisation, is a
sleight of hand in terms of the conceptualisation of space and
time. And this has social and political effects. It says that
16 Mozambique and Nicaragua are not really different from “us”.
We are not to imagine them as having their own trajectories,
their own particular histories, and the potential for their own,
19 perhaps different, futures. They are not recognised as coeval
others. They are merely at an earlier stage in the one and only
narrative it is possible to tell. That cosmology of “only one
22 narrative” obliterates the multiplicities, the contemporaneous
heterogeneities of space. It reduces simultaneous coexistence
to place in the historical queue. In the context of a world which
25 is, indeed, increasingly interconnected, the notion of place has
come to have totemic resonance.
D. Massey. For space. London: Sage Publications, 2005, p. 4-5 (adapted).
(Diplomacia – 2016 – CESPE) Considering the ideas and the
vocabulary of text II, decide whether the statements below
are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) The word “ineluctability” (R.13) is synonymous with
questionability.
(2) The expression “sleight of hand” (R.14) carries the
notion of skilful deception.
(3) The author asserts that, even though “space” is an
extension to be travelled, it is nowadays intertwined
with the notion of time.
(4) The adjective “coeval” (R.19) could be replaced by
coetaneous without changing the meaning of the
sentence.
1: Wrong. According to the Oxford Dictionary, “ineluctable” means
“Unable to be resisted or avoided; inescapable.”
2: Correct. The expression means “manual dexterity, typically in
performing tricks.” In broader contexts, it translates as “skillful deception.
3: Correct. In “They are merely at an earlier stage in the one and only
narrative it is possible to tell. That cosmology of “only one narrative”
obliterates the multiplicities, the contemporaneous heterogeneities of
space. It reduces simultaneous coexistence to place in the historical
queue”, the author’s argument – that, in how globalization is currently
described, countries are placed on a continuum of different stages of
development – evidences the correlation of space and time.
4: Correct. According to the Oxford Dictionary, both “coeval” and
“coetaneous” mean “Having the same age or date of origin; contemporary”.
Gabarito 1E, 2C, 3C, 4C
(Diplomacia – 2016 – CESPE) Decide whether the statements
below, concerning the ideas and the vocabulary of text
II, are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) The social and political consequences of the denition
of globalisation are that some countries may be
regarded as delayed in their historic progression.
(2) The phrase “obliterates the multiplicities” (R.22) can
be replaced by removes diversities, without changing
the meaning of the sentence.
(3) In the text, the adjective “totemic” (R.26) is the same
as emblematic.
(4) Globalisation, as a project, intends to respect and promote
different futures and dynamics for different countries.
1: Annulled. This item was annulled due to a grammar mistake – instead
of “historic”, the correct word would have been “historical”.
2: Annulled. This item was also annulled. The missing article before
“diversities” created ambiguity.
3: Correct. According to the Oxford Dictionary, the word “totem” means
“A natural object or animal that is believed by a particular society to
have spiritual signicance and that is adopted by it as an emblem.”
4: Wrong. “We are not to imagine them as having their own trajectories,
their own particular histories, and the potential for their own, perhaps
different, futures. They are not recognised as coeval others. They are
merely at an earlier stage in the one and only narrative it is possible to
tell. That cosmology of “only one narrative” obliterates the multiplicities,
the contemporaneous heterogeneities of space”.
Gabarito 1 ANULADA, 2 ANULADA, 3C, 4E
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130
Text III
1 Pierre Englebert’s attempt to measure all of Africa
using the yardstick of a single historical factor is highly
problematic. In this regard, Englebert’s book suffers from four
4 tendencies, the rst two of which involve a dominant mode in
current writing about Africa, and the third and fourth of which
reect the constraints of academic publishing, particularly in
7 the United States of America. Current writing about Africa is
characterised, rstly, by a remarkable tendency to generalize
about the entire continent, which no author specialising in
10 Asia, for example, would dare contemplate. This usually
involves the extrapolation of a single empirical situation to the
entire continent. In Englebert’s case, this clearly relates to his
13 experience in the eastern Congo, which is made to serve as an
example for all of sub-Saharan Africa. This tendency is
associated, secondly, with an intensive search for a single
16 factor that would explain the plight of Africa, a conceptual
master key that can unlock the puzzle of the “African
exception”. Englebert’s book is a typical example of this
19 tendency to substitute historical explanations with a philosophy
of history. He is not concerned with the identication of
contingent factors which, through their myriad combinations
22 and mutual (correlated) causal processes, have led to the
emergence of the current complex situation on the African
continent. Instead, he claims that the entire situation arose from
25 a single historical moment — that of decolonisation — and
evolved by necessity from this, and that this historical moment
gave birth to a structure of post-coloniality, from which
28 African states are fundamentally incapable of liberating
themselves (while non-African post-colonies apparently are
capable). Here, the argument becomes outright theological:
31 The sovereignty accorded by outside actors represents the
“original sin” of African statehood. As a consequence, and
keeping in line with this theological mode of thinking,
34 post-colonial Africa can be saved only by others.
T. Bierschenk. Book Review — Pierre Englebert (2009), Africa: unity, sovereignty, and sorrow.
Internet: (adapted).
(Diplomacia – 2016 – CESPE) Decide whether the following
statements, concerning the grammatical and semantic
aspects of text III, are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) Both the author of the book itself and the reviewer
agree that African countries should not have had their
independence determined by outside forces.
(2) Most publications tend to propose explanations for the
situation of African and Asian countries in a generalised
form.
(3) If “yardstick” (R.2) is replaced by criterion in the
text, it would be necessary to change the preposition
following it — “of” — in order to maintain grammatical
accuracy.
(4) The author of the review blames the problems of
Englebert’s book mostly on his search for a single
answer for the issues concerning African countries.
1: Wrong. That is Englebert’s argument - “Here, the argument becomes
outright theological: 31 The sovereignty accorded by outside actors
represents the “original sin” of African statehood”. Bierschenk is critical
of this argument, as the same passage evidences.
2: Wrong. Such generalization does happen regarding Asia: “Current
writing about Africa is characterised, rstly, by a remarkable tendency
to generalise about the entire continent, which no author specialising
in Asia, for example, would dare contemplate”.
3: Wrong. The same preposition would follow “criterion”.
4: Correct. “Pierre Englebert’s attempt to measure all of Africa using the
yardstick of a single historical factor is highly problematic.”
Gabarito 1E, 2E, 3E, 4C
(Diplomacia – 2016 – CESPE) The statements below are about
the ideas of text III and the vocabulary used in it. Decide
whether those statements are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) The author of the review understands the problems of
the African continent as a more complex issue.
(2) The word “myriad” (R.21) is synonymous with
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131
2. INGLêS
intricate.
(3) Englebert’s experience in the eastern Congo is
paradigmatic for the elaboration of his thesis.
(4) The noun “constraints” (R.6) could be correctly
replaced by limitations.
1: Correct. “Englebert’s book is a typical example of this tendency to
substitute historical explanations with a philosophy of history. He is not
concerned with the identication of contingent factors which, through
their myriad combinations and mutual (correlated) causal processes,
have led to the emergence of the current complex situation on the
African continent”.
2: Wrong. “Myriad” means “a countless or extremely great number of
people or things”, while “intricate” means “very complicated or detailed”
(Oxford Dictionary).
3: Correct. “This usually involves the extrapolation of a single empirical
situation to the entire continent. In Englebert’s case, this clearly relates
to his experience in the eastern Congo, which is made to serve as an
example for all of sub-Saharan Africa.”
4: Correct. According to the Oxford Dictionary, “constraint” means “A
limitation or restriction”.
Gabarito 1C, 2E, 3C, 4C
Text IV
1 The basic instruments of public diplomacy are hardly
2 new. The United States, for example, has conducted
3 educational and cultural exchange programs for almost
4 sixty years. Cultural diplomacy is usually an exercise in
5 deferred gratication, since such exchange programs typically
6 don’t offer immediate or obvious payoffs. Instead, programs
7 such as the Fulbright educational exchanges represent a
8 long-term strategic investment in establishing mutual trust and
9 understanding. Similarly, the US information programs
10 overseas have a long pedigree: the daily Washington File
11 (formerly the Wireless File) began operation in the State
12 Department in 1935 after an ambassador complained that the
13 slow distribution of ofcial information was “about as useful
14 as a Roman ruin in a fast-changing world”.
15 The ow of information since has neither slowed nor
16 stopped changing. In recent months, the biggest internal
17 change, of course, has been integration. Public diplomacy
18 programs, once administered by the US Information Agency,
19 are now integrated into the Department of State under the
20 Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs.
21 Moreover, public diplomacy ofcers serve in each of the
22 Department’s regional and functional bureaus and in public
23 affairs sections of the embassy.
Internet: .org> (adapted).
(Diplomacia – 2016 – CESPE) Considering the content of text IV, decide whether the following statements are right (C) or
wrong (E).
(1) US educational and cultural exchange programs have
been in place for over sixty years.
(2) The US information programs abroad started operating
due to an ambassador’s complaint.
(3) The basic instruments of public diplomacy have
practically remained the same.
(4) Public diplomacy programs still remain disconnected
across government agencies.
1: Wrong. The text says “for almost sixty years”, instead of “for over
sixty years”. The different prepositions lead to a change in meaning.
2: Correct. “Similarly, the US information programs overseas have a
long pedigree: the daily Washington File (formerly the Wireless File)
began operation in the State Department in 1935 after an ambassador
complained that the slow distribution of ofcial information was “about
as useful as a Roman ruin in a fast-changing world”.
3: Correct. “The basic instruments of public diplomacy are hardly new.”
4: Wrong. “Public diplomacy programs, once administered by the US
Information Agency, are now integrated into the Department of State
under the Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs.”
Gabarito 1E, 2C, 3C, 4E
(Diplomacia – 2016 – CESPE) Decide whether the statements
below are right (C) or wrong (E) according to the ideas
and information of text IV.
(1) Integration is bigger than any other internal change.
(2) Public diplomacy programs have long been integrated
into the Department of State.
(3) Public diplomacy officers serve either in the
Department’s regional and functional bureaus or in
public affairs sections of the embassy.
(4) The ow of information has been slowing its pace
for years.
1: Correct. “In recent months, the biggest internal change, of course,
has been integration.”
2: Wrong. They used to be administered by the US Information Agency.
3: Wrong. They serve in the bureaus and in the embassies.
4: Wrong. “The ow of information since has neither slowed nor
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MARK HUGHES, ANTHONY ROSENBERG E RODRIGO ARMSTRONG
132
stopped changing”.
Gabarito 1C, 2E, 3E, 4E
(Diplomacia – 2016 – CESPE) In text IV the expression “deferred
gratication” (R.5) could be replaced, without changing
of meaning, by (decide whether the items below are right
— C — or wrong — E):
(1) expected gratication.
(2) generous expectation.
(3) paid-off expectation.
(4) put-off gratication.
The verb to defer means “Put off (an action or event) to
a later time; postpone” (Oxford Dictionary). Taking that
into consideration:
1: Wrong. “Expected” does not mean that the gratication will happen.
2: Wrong. “Generous” does not relate to time, but rather to quality,
and “expectation” does not mean that the gratication will happen.
3: Wrong. “To pay off” means “(of a course of action) yield good
results; succeed”; thus, it cannot replace “deferred”. In addition, there
is the aforementioned issue of “expectation” replacing “gratication”.
4: Correct. As mentioned, the verb to defer means “Put off (an action
or event) to a later time; postpone.”
Gabarito 1E, 2E ,3E, 4C
Text V
Most trade between friendly nations, particularly those
who operate within the multilaterally agreed rules of
the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and other relevant
international agreements, proceeds smoothly. However,
disputes do arise, and they fall into three main categories:
(i) Conicts of policy between sovereign governments
which then have an impact on their mutual trade and
investment; (ii) Disputes over practical trade actions
which are initiated by governments, or get escalated to the
intergovernmental level; and (iii) Disputes over the proper
application to trade of internationally agreed standards
in broader policy areas like environmental protection or
labour conditions. All such disputes require diplomatic
intervention, sometimes by generalist diplomats, but most
often by technical trade specialists.
Sometime ago, the most visible trade-related dispute was
that between the United States Government and BP over
the disastrous Macondo oil leak in the Gulf of Mexico.
However, this is not a typical case. The principal com-
pany involved happens to be UK-based (though BP has
almost as many US shareholders as British), but a similar
disaster could occur at any time to a US-based operator.
No intergovernmental differences of substance are at stake
— the British Government became involved only indi-
rectly, and because of the knock-on effects which the
costs of this accident will have on BP shareholders and
on pension funds in the UK.
Michael Johnson. The impact of political and diplomatic
disputes on international business activity. Internet:
(adapted).
(Diplomacia – 2016 – CESPE) Based on text V, decide whether
the statements below are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) There has never been any conict between members
of WTO.
(2) Trade disputes can be categorized into at least three
facets.
(3) Friendly nations are those ones which belong to WTO.
(4) The majority of international trade is carried out free
of difculties.
1: Wrong. The text says that most trade between WTO members
happens without disputes, but that conicts do happen: “Most trade
between friendly nations, particularly those who operate within the
multilaterally agreed rules of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and
other relevant international agreements, proceeds smoothly. However,
disputes do arise”
2: Correct. “However, disputes do arise, and they fall into three main
categories”.
3: Wrong. WTO members are friendly nations, but friendly nations
are not restricted to the WTO: “Most trade between friendly nations,
particularly those who operate within the multilaterally agreed rules of
the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and other relevant international
agreements, proceeds smoothly.”
4: Correct. “Most trade between friendly nations, particularly those
who operate within the multilaterally agreed rules of the World Trade
Organisation (WTO) and other relevant international agreements,
proceeds smoothly.”
Gabarito 1E, 2C, 3E, 4C
(Diplomacia – 2016 – CESPE) Decide whether the following
statements are right (C) or wrong (E) according to text V.
(1) Disputes on international issues neither demand
the intervention of diplomats nor of technical trade
experts.
(2) Never before has there been a dispute between the
US Government and BP.
(3) The main company involved in the Macondo accident
is, just by chance, based in UK.
(4) Intergovernmental differences of substance are not
involved in the case.
1: Wrong. “All such disputes require diplomatic intervention, sometimes
by generalist diplomats, but most often by technical trade specialists.”
2: Wrong. The text simply states this dispute was the most known one:
“the most visible trade-related dispute was that between the United
States Government and BP over the disastrous Macondo oil leak in
the Gulf of Mexico”.
3: Correct. That is the meaning of the expression “happens to be” in
“The principal company involved happens to be UK-based”.
4: Correct. “No intergovernmental differences of substance are at stake”,
in which the expression “at stake” means “at issue or in question”.
Gabarito 1E, 2E, 3C ,4C
Text for questions from 32 to 34
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133
2. INGLêS
1 Most of the recent scholarly works on the evolution
of diplomacy highlight the added complexity in which “states
and other international actors communicate, negotiate and
4 otherwise interact” in the 21st century. Diplomacy has to take
into account “the crazy-quilt nature of modern
interdependence”. Decision-making on the international stage
7 involves what has been depicted as “two level games” or
“double-edged diplomacy”. With accentuated forms of
globalization the scope of diplomacy as the “engine room” of
10 International Relations has moved beyond the traditional core
concerns to encompass a myriad set of issue areas. And the
boundaries of participation in diplomacy — and the very
13 denition of diplomats — have broadened as well, albeit in a
still contested fashion. In a variety of ways, therefore, not only
its methods but also its objectives are far more expansive than
16 ever before.
Yet, while the theme of complexity radiates through
the pages of this book, changed circumstances and the
19 stretching of form, scope, and intensity do not only produce
fragmentation but centralization in terms of purposive acts.
Amid the larger debates about the diversity of principals,
22 agents, and intermediaries, the space in modern diplomacy for
leadership by personalities at the apex of power has expanded.
At odds with the counter-image of horizontal breadth with an
25 open-ended nature, the dynamic of 21 -century diplomacy
remains highly vertically oriented and individual-centric.
To showcase this phenomenon, however, is no to
28 suggest ossication. In terms of causation, the dependence on
leaders is largely a reaction to complexity. With the shift to
multi-party, multi-channel, multi-issue negotiations, with
31 domestic as well as international interests and values in play,
leaders are often the only actors who can cut through the
complexity and make the necessary trade-offs to allow
34 deadlocks to be broken. In terms of communication and other
modes of representation, bringing in leaders differentiates and
elevates issues from the bureaucratic arena.
37 In terms of effect, the primacy of leaders reinforces
elements of both club and network diplomacy. In its most
visible manifestation via summit diplomacy, the image of club
40 diplomacy explicitly differentiates the status and role of
insiders and outsiders and thus the hierarchical nature of
diplomacy. Although “large teams of representatives” are
43 involved in this central form of international practice, it is the
“organized performances” of leaders that possess the most
salience. At the same time, though, the galvanizing or catalytic
46 dimension of leader-driven diplomacy provides new avenues
and legitimation for network diplomacy, with many decisions
of summits being outsourced to actors who did not participate
49 at the summit but possess the technical knowledge, institutional
credibility, and resources to enhance results.
Andrew F. Cooper. The changing nature of diplomacy. In: Andrew
F. Cooper and Jorge Heine. The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013. p. 36 (adapted).
(Diplomacia – 2015 – CESPE) In reference to the text, decide whether the following statements are right (C) or wrong (E).
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MARK HUGHES, ANTHONY ROSENBERG E RODRIGO ARMSTRONG
134
(1) The hierarchical structure of the diplomatic services
in the 21st century is remarkably different from that
prevalent in the previous centuries.
(2) In the rst paragraph, the author presents the main
ideas he collected from “Most of the recent scholarly
works” (R.1) on which his argument is built along
the text.
(3) The text presents an opposition between club
diplomacy and network diplomacy, which are different
and irreconcilable ways of settling international
conicts.
(4) Discussions about inclusiveness and diversity in
diplomatic circles have led to the expansion of the
power of some countries.
1: Wrong. “At odds with the counter-image of horizontal breadth with
an open-ended nature, the dynamic of 21st -century diplomacy remains
highly vertically oriented and individual-centric.”
2: Correct. He states “Diplomacy has to take into account ‘the crazy-
quilt nature of modern interdependence’. Decision-making on the
international stage involves what has been depicted as “two level games”
or “double-edged diplomacy’”. Based on this assessment, he builds his
main argument that this complexity has, contrary to what most people
thought, increased the importance of presidential diplomacy.
3: Wrong. “In terms of effect, the primacy of leaders reinforces elements
of both club and network diplomacy” and “At the same time, though,
the galvanizing or catalytic dimension of leader-driven diplomacy
provides new avenues and legitimation for network diplomacy, with
many decisions of summits being outsourced to actors who did
not participate at the summit but possess the technical knowledge,
institutional credibility, and resources to enhance results.”
4: Wrong. There is no mention to the distribution of power among
countries in the text.
Gabarito 1E, 2C, 3E, 4E
(Diplomacia – 2015 – CESPE) In relation to the content and the
vocabulary of the text, decide whether the following
statements are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) From the third paragraph, it is correct to infer that
the more complex the diplomatic scenario, the more
necessary the presence of leaders is.
(2) As far as textual unity is concerned, “Yet” provides
a transition from the rst to the second paragraphs,
and establishes a contrast between the ideas in each
of them.
(3) The expressions “two level games” (R.7) and “double-
edged diplomacy” (R.8) refer to a kind of diplomacy
characterized by the presence of two types of actors:
political leaders and technical diplomats.
(4) The idea expressed by the fragment “diversity of
principals, agents, and intermediaries” (R. 21 and
22) stands in sharp contrast to the one introduced by
“horizontal breadth with an open-ended nature” (R.
24 and 25).
1: Correct. “In terms of causation, the dependence on leaders is largely
a reaction to complexity. With the shift to multi-party, multi-channel,
multi-issue negotiations, with domestic as well as international interests
and values in play, leaders are often the only actors who can cut through
the complexity and make the necessary trade-offs to allow deadlocks
to be broken”.
2: Correct. “Yet” establishes a concession, which, in this case, is also
reinforced by the following subordinate sentence beginning with “while”.
3: Wrong. It refers to broadened scope of agents involved in international
affairs, from diplomats themselves to local decision-makers.
4: Wrong. It reinforces the idea of “horizontal breadth”, once these
principals, agents and intermediaries are not grouped within a specic
hierarchy.
Gabarito 1C, 2C, 3E, 4E
(Diplomacia – 2015 – CESPE) Each of the fragments from the
text presented below is followed by a suggestion of
rewriting. Decide whether the suggestion given maintains
the meaning, coherence and grammar correction of the
text (C) or not (E).
(1) “At odds with” (R.24): As bizarre as
(2) “make the necessary trade-offs to allow deadlocks to
be broken” (R. 33 and 34): strike a compromise as a
way out of an impasse
(3) “to encompass a myriad set of issue areas” (R.11): to
comprise a vast range of elds of interest
(4) “To showcase this phenomenon, however, is no to
suggest ossication” (R. 27 and 28): Highlighting this
fact does not amount to acknowledging stagnation.
1: Wrong. “At odds with” means “disagreeing with”.
2: Correct. A “trade-off” is a compromise, while a “deadlock” is an
impasse.
3: Correct. “To encompass” and “to comprise” mean “to include”, while
“myriad” means “a variety of”.
4: Annulled. This item was cancelled because it the usage of
“acknowledging” and “stagnation” is ambiguous. According to the
Oxford Dictionary, “to acknowledge” means “to recognize as a fact”,
while “to suggest” means either one proposes something is a fact, or
one is simply vents it is a possibility. In addition, “ossication” means
“to become rigid”, whereas “stagnation” means “to stop owing or
growing”.
Gabarito 1E, 2C, 3C, 4ANULADA
Text for questions from 35 to 38
1 Barbara Dawson, director of the Hugh Lane Gallery
in Dublin, remembers very clearly the day in 1997 when she
climbed the steep stairs and entered Francis Bacon’s studio at
4 7 Reece Mews, South Kensington. It had been left the way it
was when he passed away, on April 28 1992, and it was a
chaos of slashed canvases, paint-splashed walls, cloths,
7 brushes, champagne boxes, and a large mirror. She stood and
stared for a long time, in a kind of incredulity, “and actually it
became quite beautiful.” She began to see “paths cut through
10 it,” and details. “The last unnished painting was on the easel
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135
2. INGLêS
when I went in there, and on the oor underneath the easel was
a short article on George Michael, the singer, about how he
13 liked to be photographed from one side. It was like looking
into somebody’s mind”.
7 Reece Mews was tiny, and apart from the studio
16 consisted of two rooms — a kitchen that contained a bath, and
a living room that doubled as a bedroom. The studio had one
skylight, and Bacon usually worked there in the mornings. He
19 tried to paint elsewhere — in South Africa, for example, when
he was visiting family, but couldn’t. (Too much light, was the
rather surprising objection.) He liked the size and general
22 frugality, too.
Dawson recognised that the studio was the making of
Bacon’s art in a more profound sense than just being a
25 comfortable space to paint in, and determined that it should not
be dismantled. John Edwards, to whom Bacon had bequeathed
Reece Mews, felt similarly, and after months of painstaking
28 cataloguing by archaeologists, conservators and photographers,
the Hugh Lane Gallery took delivery of the studio, in 1998. It
was opened to the public in 2001.
31 What is visible now, in a climate-controlled corner of
the gallery, a gracious neo-classical building on Parnell Square
in Dublin, is in fact a kind of faithful “skin” of objects; the
34 tables and chairs have all been returned to their original places,
the work surfaces seem as cluttered as they were — but the
deep stuff, the bedrock, has been removed and is kept in
37 climate-controlled archival areas. In the end, there were 7,500
items — samples of painting materials, photographs, slashed
canvasses, umpteen handwritten notes, drawings, books,
40 champagne boxes.
Bacon was homosexual at a time when it was still
illegal, and while he was open about his sexuality, his notes for
43 prospective paintings refer to “bed[s] of crime]”, and his
homosexuality was felt as an afiction, says Dawson. It wasn’t
easy. The sense of guilt is apparent in his work, as well as his
46 fascination with violence. “His collections of pictures, dead
bodies, or depictions of violence — he’s not looking at
violence from the classic liberal position”. It was all, concedes
49 Dawson, accompanied by intellectual rigour, and an insistente
attempt at objectivity — “he’s trying to detach from himself as
well.”
52 Everything was grist, and in his studio even his own
art fed other art. He returned to his own work obsessively,
repeating and augmenting. And of course, he responded
55 negatively — and violently — as well as positively; a hundred
is a lot of slashed canvasses to keep around you when you’re
working, especially when they are so deliberately slashed. In
58 a way, all this might serve as a metaphor for the importance of
our understanding of his studio as a whole.
Aida Edemarian. Francis Bacon: box of tricks. Internet: (adapted).
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MARK HUGHES, ANTHONY ROSENBERG E RODRIGO ARMSTRONG
136
(Diplomacia – 2015 – CESPE) Decide whether the statements
below are right (C) or wrong (E) according to the ideas
and facts mentioned in the text.
(1) The two driving forces behind the Hugh Lane Gallery
project were Dawson and Edwards.
(2) Bacon left part of his properties to Edwards.
(3) The author of the text claims that the fact that George
Michael liked having his profile photographed
revealed a lot about his personality.
(4) Bacon believed that his inability to work in South
Africa was due to the visits of his relatives.
1: Correct. Dawson is the director of the gallery, while Edwards was
the one responsible for the studio after Bacon’s death.
2: Correct. That is the meaning of the verb “to bequeath”, in “John
Edwards, to whom Bacon had bequeathed Reece Mews”.
3: Wrong. The author says that the magazine article seemed to have
inspired Bacon in the composition of his last unnished painting.
4: Wrong. He complained about the studio there having too much light.
Gabarito 1C, 2C, 3E, 4E
(Diplomacia – 2015 – CESPE) According to the text and
in reference to Bacon’s studio, decide whether the
statements below are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) Bacon’s original studio was transplanted and
reassembled in the Irish capital city.
(2) The studio at 7 Reece Mews will soon provide an
invaluable and lasting wealth of information and
enjoyment for experts on Bacon’s art.
(3) The interior of Bacon’s studio is in sharp contrast to
Hugh Lane Gallery’s front façade.
(4) Bacon’s studio was rather small but its living room was
twice the size of the bedroom.
1: Correct. “What is visible now, in a climate-controlled corner of the
gallery, a gracious neo-classical building on Parnell Square in Dublin,
is in fact a kind of faithful “skin” of objects”.
2: Wrong. The studio and its materials have been transported to the
Gallery.
3: Correct. The Gallery’s studio is a representation of the actual studio.
The material Bacon used is stored safely: “What is visible now, in a
climate-controlled corner of the gallery, a gracious neo-classical building
on Parnell Square in Dublin, is in fact a kind of faithful “skin” of objects;
the tables and chairs have all been returned to their original places, the
work surfaces seem as cluttered as they were — but the deep stuff, the
bedrock, has been removed and is kept in climate-controlled archival
areas. In the end, there were 7,500 items — samples of painting
materials, photographs, slashed canvasses, umpteen handwritten notes,
drawings, books, champagne boxes.”
4: Wrong. There is no such mention of measures in the text. In the
sentence “a living room that doubled as a bedroom”, the word “doubled”
means the living room was also a bedroom.
Gabarito 1C, 2E, 3C, 4E
(Diplomacia – 2015 – CESPE) According to the information given
in the text about Bacon’s personal life, his relationship
with art, and his work, decide whether the statements
below are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) Heinous crimes provided the seeds for Bacon’s major
works.
(2) Bacon makes a deliberate effort not to allow his
personal life to take central stage in his art.
(3) Bacon objected to the manner in which artists from
the classical period approached violence as a subject
matter.
(4) The fact that Bacon ripped a considerable number of
paintings is consistent with his personality but plays
a minor role in understanding his art.
1: Wrong. He felt guilty about homosexuality because he lived at
time when it was illegal. He often refers to “crimes of bed”, whereas
a “heinous crime” is outrageously evil, wicked or abominable, such
as rape or murder.
2: Correct. ‘It was all, concedes Dawson, accompanied by intellectual
rigour, and an insistent attempt at objectivity — “he’s trying to detach
from himself as well.”’
3: Wrong. He is fascinated by violence, instead of taking a traditional
approach to it: “The sense of guilt is apparent in his work, as well as his
fascination with violence. “His collections of pictures, dead bodies, or
depictions of violence — he’s not looking at violence from the classic
liberal position”
4: Wrong. It is evidence of his obsession: “He returned to his own work
obsessively, repeating and augmenting. And of course, he responded
negatively — and violently — as well as positively; a hundred is a lot of
slashed canvasses to keep around you when you’re working, especially
when they are so deliberately slashed.”
Gabarito 1E, 2C, 3E, 4E
(Diplomacia – 2015 – CESPE) About the vocabulary the author
uses in his text, decide whether the statements below are
right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) “umpteen” (R.39) could be correctly replaced by torn.
(2) “cluttered” (R.35) is synonymous with scratched.
(3) “prospective paintings” (R.43) can be understood as
paintings about which Bacon was still thinking or
planning.
(4) “took delivery” (R.29) means received something that
has already been paid for.
1: Wrong. “Umpteen” means “indenitely many; a lot of”
2: Wrong. “Cluttered” means “crowd (something) untidily; ll with
clutter.”
3: Correct. “Prospective” means “expected or expecting to be something
particular in the future.”
4: Correct. The expression means to receive something.
Gabarito 1E, 2E, 3C, 4C
Text for questions from 39 to 42
1 He — for there could be no doubt of his sex, though
the fashion of the time did something to disguise it — was in
the act of slicing at the head of an enemy which swung from
4 the rafters. It was the colour of an old football, and more or
less the shape of one, save for the sunken cheeks and a strand
or two of coarse, dry hair, like the hair on a coconut. Orlando’s
7 father, or perhaps his grandfather, had struck it from the
shoulders of a vast Pagan who had started up under the moon
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2. INGLêS
in the barbarian elds of Africa; and now it swung, gently,
10 perpetually, in the breeze which never ceased blowing through
the attic rooms of the gigantic house of the lord who had slain
him.
13 Orlando’s fathers had ridden in elds of asphodel,
and stony elds, and elds watered by strange rivers, and they
had struck many heads of many colours off many shoulders,
16 and brought them back to hang from the rafters. So too would
Orlando, he vowed. But since he was sixteen only, and too
young to ride with them in Africa or France, he would steal
19 away from his mother and the peacocks in the garden and go to
his attic room and there lunge and plunge and slice the air with
his blade. (…) His fathers had been noble since they had been
22 at all. They came out of the northern mists wearing coronets on
their heads. Were not the bars of darkness in the room, and the
yellow pools which chequered the oor, made by the sun
25 falling through the stained glass of a vast coat of arms in the
window? Orlando stood now in the midst of the yellow body
of a heraldic leopard. When he put his hand on the window-sill
28 to push the window open, it was instantly coloured red, blue,
and yellow like a buttery’s wing. Thus, those who like
symbols, and have a turn for the deciphering of them, might
31 observe that though the shapely legs, the handsome body, and
the well-set shoulders were all of them decorated with various
tints of heraldic light, Orlando’s face, as he threw the window
34 open, was lit solely by the sun itself. A more candid, sullen
face it would be impossible to nd. Happy the mother who
bears, happier still the biographer who records the life of such
37 a one! Never need she vex herself, nor he invokes the help of
novelist or poet. From deed to deed, from glory to glory, from
ofce to ofce he must go, his scribe following after, till they
40 reach whatever seat it may be that is the height of their desire.
Orlando, to look at, was cut out precisely for some such career.
The red of the cheeks was covered with peach down; the down
43 on the lips was only a little thicker than the down on the
cheeks. The lips themselves were short and slightly drawn back
over teeth of an exquisite and almond whiteness. Nothing
46 disturbed the arrowy nose in its short, tense ight; the hair was
dark, the ears small, and tted closely to the head. But, alas,
that these catalogues of youthful beauty cannot end without
49 mentioning forehead and eyes. Alas, that people are seldom
born devoid of all three; for directly we glance at Orlando
standing by the window, we must admit that he had eyes like
52 drenched violets, so large that the water seemed to have
brimmed in them and widened them; and a brow like the
swelling of a marble dome pressed between the two blank
55 medallions which were his temples. Directly we glance at eyes
and forehead, thus do we rhapsodize. Directly we glance at
eyes and forehead, we have to admit a thousand disagreeables
58 which it is the aim of every good biographer to ignore.
Virginia Woolf. Orlando – A biography, 1928 (adapted).
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138
(Diplomacia – 2015 – CESPE) According to the text, decide
whether the following statements are right (C) or wrong
(E).
(1) Lunging, plunging and slicing the air with a blade
were activities with which Orlando engaged as some
sort of rehearsal for the roles he believed he would
eventually play.
(2) Orlando acquired, from an early age on, a disconcerting
habit of cross-dressing.
(3) One could nd some live animals up in the attic of
Orlando’s house.
(4) Orlando cut a striking gure.
1: Correct. “So too would Orlando, he vowed. But since he was sixteen
only, and too young to ride with them in Africa or France, he would steal
away from his mother and the peacocks in the garden and go to his
attic room and there lunge and plunge and slice the air with his blade”
2: Wrong. The text simply mentions that, at the time, boys and girls
dressed alike.
3: Wrong. The leopard mentioned in the text was simply the result of
light coming through the coat of arms on the stained glass window.
4: Correct. “those who like symbols, and have a turn for the deciphering
of them, might observe that though the shapely legs, the handsome
body, and the well-set shoulders were all of them decorated with various
tints of heraldic light, Orlando’s face, as he threw the window open,
was lit solely by the sun itself”
Gabarito 1C, 2E, 3E, 4C
(Diplomacia – 2015 – CESPE) In relation to Orlando’s family,
decide whether the following statements are right (C)
or wrong (E).
(1) Orlando’s family have enjoyed their title from time
immemorial.
(2) Orlando’s mother was a victim of his, because he
would make off with her money while she was busy
in the garden.
(3) Orlando’s father or his grandfather traversed vast
expanses of land beheading people of different races
along the way.
(4) His mother, when pregnant, foresaw a life of success
for Orlando, a life which would make her happy.
1: Correct. “His fathers had been noble since they had been at all.”
2: Wrong. There is no mention of him harming his mother or stealing
her money. He simply took things from the garden so he could play
with them in the attic.
3: Correct. “Orlando’s fathers had ridden in elds of asphodel, and
stony elds, and elds watered by strange rivers, and they had struck
many heads of many colours off many shoulders, and brought them
back to hang from the rafters”
4: Wrong. There is no mention to when Orlando’s mother was pregnant
with him. The text merely says that she is lucky to have such a son:
“Happy the mother who bears, happier still the biographer who records
the life of such a one! Never need she vex herself, nor he invokes the
help of novelist or poet.”
Gabarito 1C, 2E, 3C, 4E
(Diplomacia – 2015 – CESPE) As far as Orlando’s physical
features are concerned, decide whether the following
statements are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) His eyes and brow were his most striking facial
features.
(2) Orlando’s lips and cheeks had a sweet fragrance
reminiscent of fresh fruit.
(3) There was some ne, silky, soft hair both on his lips
and cheeks.
(4) His teeth were not perfectly aligned and had the
colour of nuts.
1: Correct. “But, alas, that these catalogues of youthful beauty cannot
end without mentioning forehead and eyes”. In this sentence, the word
“alas”, which is used express grief, pity, concern, or bewilderment,
highlights what is to be said about Orlando’s eyes and forehead (brow).
2: Wrong. In “The red of the cheeks was covered with peach down”,
the word “down” means “silky, soft hair”.
3: Correct. That is the meaning of “down”, as previously mentioned.
4: Wrong. The text says nothing about his teeth being crooked (bent
or twisted out of shape or out of place) – “The lips themselves were
short and slightly drawn back over teeth of an exquisite and almond
whiteness”
Gabarito 1C, 2E, 3C, 4E
(Diplomacia – 2015 – CESPE) In reference to the content of
the text, its vocabulary and syntactic structure, decide
whether the following statements are right (C) or wrong
(E).
(1) The use of the words “dome” (R.54) and “temples”
(R.55) has the effect of creating a faint aura of
saintliness and religiousness about Orlando.
(2) By being informed that Orlando had a “sullen face”
(R. 34 and 35), the reader learns that Orlando was a
serious and grave young man.
(3) In lines 4, 7 and 9, although with different syntactic
functions, the word it refers to the same thing: “the
head of an enemy which swung from the rafters” (R.
3 and 4).
(4) The repetition of single words and of phrases results in
a tiresome text, one in which the author tries to tell a
story but is stuck in descriptive language.
1: Wrong. The word “dome” suggests he had a large forehead, and the
word “temples” refers to “the at part of either side of the head between
the forehead and the ear” (Oxford Dictionary).
2: Correct. According to the Oxford Dictionary, the word sullen means
“bad-tempered and sulky; gloomy.”
3: Correct. “It was the colour of an old football”; “had struck it from
the shoulders”; “and now it swung”. The three occurrences of it refer
to the head of the enemy.
4: Wrong. There are no instances of such repetition of phrases.
Gabarito 1E, 2C, 3C, 4E
Text for questions 43 and 44
1 When Memory Banda’s younger sister was forced to
marry at just 11 years old, Memory became determined to
ensure that no more girls had to experience her sister’s fate.
4 Since then, this remarkable young woman from rural Malawi
has helped to persuade her government to raise the minimum
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2. INGLêS
age of marriage across her country, and is blazing a trail for
7 girls that we all should follow.
Memory’s sister became pregnant during a traditional
sexual “cleansing ceremony”, a rite of passage in some parts of
10 Malawi that is supposed to prepare pubescent girls for
womanhood and marriage. She was forced to marry the father
of her unplanned child, a man in his early 30s, and was
13 burdened with all the responsibilities of adulthood. Now 16,
she is raising three children alone; she has been unable to
return to school.
16 The incident inspired Memory to push for a better
future for girls. She became involved with a local grassroots
group, Girls Empowerment Network, joining other young
19 women and civil-society groups across Malawi to urge village
authorities and parliamentary ministers to put an end to child
marriages. Last month, Memory’s efforts — along with those
22 of thousands of others — paid off, when Malawi’s government
enacted a new law that sets the minimum age for marriage
at 18.
25 Memory’s achievement is an important one. Every
year, some 15 million girls are married before the age of 18,
and their plight is all too often ignored. A girl forced into
28 marriage typically faces pressure to bear children before she is
physically or emotionally ready to do so. And the result can be
deadly. Girls who give birth before they turn 15 are ve times
31 more likely to die in pregnancy or childbirth than women in
their 20s.
The consequences of child marriage are lifelong.
34 Child brides typically drop out of school, losing the chance to
acquire the skills and knowledge needed to lift themselves and
their families out of poverty. Like Memory’s sister, they often
37 are married to older men — a situation that leaves them less
able to ensure that they are treated well.
Education for girls is crucial to ending child marriage.
40 The transition from primary school to secondary school is
particularly important, as it usually coincides with adolescence,
a period in a girl’s life that lays the foundation for success and
43 wellbeing in womanhood. Girls with secondary education are
up to six times less likely to marry early compared to girls with
little or no education.
46 Girls must be convinced and assured of their worth,
but they should not be left to end child marriage on their
own. Families, communities, and societies share a joint
49 responsibility to end it. Governments need to adopt legislation
that sets 18 as the minimum age for marriage — leaving no
room for exceptions such as traditional practices or parental
52 consent — the same way that fathers, brothers, and male
leaders must be engaged to care for and empower girls.
It is up to all of us to serve as role models for the girls
55 in our lives. We have all beneted from the wisdom of our
parents, partners, colleagues, and mentors. It is now up to us to
nourish and nurture girls’ ambitions. Let girls be girls, not
58 brides.
Mabel van Oranje and Graça Machel. Girls, not brides. Apr. 22nd 2015. Internet: .project-syndicate.org> (adapted).
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140
(Diplomacia – 2015 – CESPE) In reference to the ideas presented
in the text, decide whether the statements below are right
(C) or wrong (E).
(1) Programs and campaigns to end child marriage should
focus on girls who are already attending secondary school.
(2) The authors regard Memory Banda’s efforts as
successful because she was able to get her young
sister divorced from her older husband.
(3) The text reveals two elements of child marriage which
work together to disempower women: gender and
age difference.
(4) One can correctly deduce from the text that Memory’s
sister became pregnant with the complicity of those
involved in her cleansing ceremony.
1: Wrong. “Education for girls is crucial to ending child marriage. The
transition from primary school to secondary school is particularly
important, as it usually coincides with adolescence, a period in a girl’s
life that lays the foundation for success and well-being in womanhood.
Girls with secondary education are up to six times less likely to marry
early compared to girls with little or no education.”
2: Wrong. Although the text does say that her sister is raising her three
children alone, the authors consider Banda successful because she was
able to persuade the government to pass legislation prohibiting girls who
are younger than 18 years old from getting married: “this remarkable
young woman from rural Malawi has helped to persuade her government
to raise the minimum age of marriage across her country, and is blazing
a trail for girls that we all should follow”
3: Correct. “Like Memory’s sister, they often are married to older men
a situation that leaves them less able to ensure that they are treated well.”
4: Correct. It happened during a “cleansing ceremony”, meaning there
were many people involved.
Gabarito 1E, 2E, 3C, 4C
(Diplomacia – 2015 – CESPE) In reference to the linguistic
features of the text, decide whether the following
statements are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) In the sentence “Since then (...) should follow” (R. 4
to 7), the reference to Memory’s sister is based on the
fragment “this remarkable young woman” and the two
occurrences of “her”.
(2) By using the expression “blazing a trail” (R.6), the
authors inform the reader that Memory has opened
a glowing and intense path as a result of her work.
(3) The adjective “grassroots” (R.17) indicates that Memory
became involved with an elite group from rural areas
of Malawi.
(4) The meaning and the grammar correction of the
extract “Every year (…) often ignored” (R. 25 to 27) are
maintained if this sentence is replaced by: Annually
circa 15 million girls marry before turning 18, but their
predicament is ignored by all more often than not.
1: Wrong. The two occurrences of “her” refer to Memory herself.
2: Correct. The expression “to blaze a trail” means to be a pioneer.
3: Wrong. The word “grassroots” refers to a movement that uses the
people in a given district, region, or community as the basis for a political
or economic movement. It does not refer to elite groups.
4: Wrong. There are two issues with this sentence. First, the substitution
of “and” for “but”, connecting the two clauses, changes the relationship
between them, causing the rewritten version to read less emphatically
than the original. Second, the expression “ignored by all more often
not” lacks clarity. It may mean that, sometimes, everyone ignores the
girls’ plight, and sometimes they do not. The original sentence states
that, frequently, their plight is ignored.
Gabarito 1E, 2C, 3E, 4E
Text 1
Book Review 1 –
Karachi: Ordered Disorder and the Struggle for the City
by Laurent Gayer
With an ofcial population approaching fteen million,
Karachi is one of the largest cities in the world. It is also
the most violent. Since the mid-1980s, it has endured
endemic political conict and criminal violence, which
revolve around control of the city and its resources
(votes, land and bhatta — “protection” money). These
struggles for the city have become ethnicized. Kara-
chi, often referred to as a “Pakistan in miniature”, has
become increasingly fragmented, socially as well as
territorially.
Despite this chronic state of urban political warfare, Kara-
chi is the cornerstone of the economy of Pakistan. Gayer’s
book is an attempt to elucidate this conundrum. Against
journalistic accounts describing Karachi as chaotic and
ungovernable, he argues that there is indeed order of a
kind in the city’s permanent civil war. Far from being
entropic, Karachi’s polity is predicated upon organisatio-
nal, interpretative and pragmatic routines that have made
violence “manageable” for its populations. Whether such
“ordered disorder” is viable in the long term remains to be
seen, but for now Karachi works despite — and sometimes
through — violence.
Source: . Retrieved on: March 2, 2014.
Text 2
Book Review 2 –
The China-Pakistan Axis: Asia’s New Geopolitics
by Andrew Small
1 The Beijing-Islamabad axis plays a central role in
Asia’s geopolitics, from India’s rise to the prospects for a
post-American Afghanistan, from the threat of nuclear
4 terrorism to the continent’s new map of mines, ports and
pipelines. China is Pakistan’s great economic hope and its most
trusted military partner; Pakistan is the battleground for
7 China’s encounters with Islamic militancy and the heart of its
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141
2. INGLêS
efforts to counter-balance the emerging US-India partnership.
For decades, each country has been the other’s only
10 ‘all-weather’ friend. Yet the relationship is still little
understood. The wildest claims about it are widely believed,
while many of its most dramatic developments are hidden from
13 the public eye. This book sets out the recent history of
Sino-Pakistani ties and their ramications for the West, for
India, for Afghanistan, and for Asia as a whole. It tells the
16 stories behind some of its most sensitive aspects, including
Beijing’s support for Pakistan’s nuclear program, China’s
dealings with the Taliban, and the Chinese military’s planning
19 for crises in Pakistan. It describes a relationship increasingly
shaped by Pakistan’s internal strife, and the dilemmas China
faces between the need for regional stability and the imperative
22 for strategic competition with India and the USA.
Source: . Retrieved on: March 2, 2014.
(Diplomacia – 2014 – CESPE) Based on the information conveyed
by the two book reviews, judge the items right (C) or
wrong (E).
(1) The rst review implies that the book author’s point of
view is explicit in the narrative, whereas the second
indicates the book presents an impartial account of
the state of affairs.
(2) Though based on real facts, both books belong to the
ction genre.
(3) The two books approach political issues in Pakistan
from an international perspective.
(4) The books are connected inasmuch as the issues
discussed in the first one influence Pakistan’s
international relationships.
1: Correct. Text 1: “Against journalistic accounts describing Karachi
as chaotic and ungovernable, he argues that there is indeed order of
a kind in the city’s permanent civil war.” Text 2: “. This book sets out
the recent history of Sino-Pakistani ties and their ramications for the
West, for India, for Afghanistan, and for Asia as a whole.” The verbs
conrm the item’s statement.
2: Wrong. Both books deal with social and political analysis.
3: Annulled. This question was annulled, because, even though the
rst book focus on domestic Pakistani issues pertaining Karachi, these
issues have international consequences.
4: Correct. Text 1 states Karachi is Pakistan’s most important city
economically, while Text 2 mentions China’s economic clout over
Pakistan and its geopolitical consequences.
Gabarito 1C, 2E, 3ANULADA, 4C
(Diplomacia – 2014 – CESPE) Based on Book Review 1, judge
the items right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) The conicts and violence in Karachi contrast with
what happens in the country as a whole.
(2) The book tries to clarify Karachi’s enigmatic situation.
(3) The book shows a view of the city of Karachi that is
different
(4) Karachi has become ungovernable due to its warfare
constant condition.
1: Wrong. They reect what happens in the country as a whole: “Karachi,
often referred to as a ‘Pakistan in miniature’, has become increasingly
fragmented, socially as well as territorially.”
2: Correct. “Gayer’s book is an attempt to elucidate this conundrum”.
3: Correct. “Against journalistic accounts describing Karachi as chaotic
and ungovernable, he argues that there is indeed order of a kind in the
city’s permanent civil war. ”
4: Wrong. “Far from being entropic, Karachi’s polity is predicated
upon organisational, interpretative and pragmatic routines that have
made violence ‘manageable’ for its populations. Whether such ‘ordered
disorder’ is viable in the long term remains to be seen, but for now
Karachi works despite — and sometimes through — violence.”
Gabarito: 1E, 2C, 3C, 4E
(Diplomacia – 2014 – CESPE) Based on Book Review 2, judge
the items right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) The word “wildest” (R.11) indicates that the claims the
reviewer refers to lack basis or evidence.
(2) Mutual interests between China and Pakistan include
economic as well as military issues.
(3) The book scrutinizes the relationship between China
and Pakistan as well as some of their internal issues.
(4) The book explains the military and political tensions
between China and Pakistan on one side, and India
and the USA on the other.
1: Correct. In this usage, “wildest” means ludicrous or absurd.
2: Correct. “China is Pakistan’s great economic hope and its most
trusted military partner”.
3: Correct. “It describes a relationship increasingly shaped by Pakistan’s
internal strife, and the dilemmas China faces between the need for
regional stability and the imperative for strategic competition with
India and the USA.”
4: Wrong. The tensions arise between China and India, with Pakistan
acting as an ally of the former and the United States as an ally of the
latter.
Gabarito 1C, 2C, 3C, 4E
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142
Text 3 for questions from 35 to 37.
1 In addition to her impending, and no doubt ultimately
2 successful, quest for Senate conrmation, Janet Yellen will
3 have a lot on her plate in the coming months. Now that House
4 Republicans and Senate Democrats have come to yet another
5 temporary agreement on the budget and debt ceiling, there still
6 exists another threat to the economy: The Federal Reserve’s
7 temptation to pursue an overly ambitious monetary policy
8 aimed at offsetting the damage to the economy arising from
9 poorly conducted scal policy. Now that President Obama’s
10 Fed Chairman nominee has been announced, the Fed needs to
11 shift its focus from wondering who will lead it to what its
12 realistic goals can be. Substantially different views are held by
13 Fed hawks and doves.
14 The economy is still on uncertain footing, and public
15 frustration with the Fed is increasing, especially since the May-
16 taper into September-no-taper serious misstep. The Fed seems
17 to be making up policy as it goes along. It has become
18 distracted with trying to x problems it is not well-equipped to
19 handle, including sustained lower unemployment and a faster
20 pace of growth than is obtainable during a period of scal
21 consolidation and weak global growth.
22 The Fed’s post-nancial crisis mission creep, since
23 2008, has fueled an unhealthy codependence between it and the
24 market, akin to the infamous pre-crisis “Greenspan put,”
25 whereby the Greenspan Fed was expected to — and did —
26 step in to support nancial markets whenever there arose a threat to
27 rising asset markets. Markets assume the Fed can and will x
28 any problems, such as the latest episode of Washington’s scal
29 policy bungling, that might harm the economy or depress stock
30 prices. Once necessary, but now dangerous, improvisations of
31 monetary policy — quantitative easing and forward guidance
32 in particular — have become alternately ineffective and conter
33 productive, as the recent tapering trauma has shown. Yellen, as
34 the primary author of the Fed’s new communication strategy,
35 needs to identify ways to improve the Fed’s communication
36 with markets and the public.
37 The Fed has come a long way since its founding one
38 hundred years ago. Its original role was to be the lender of last
39 resort in a nancial crisis. That role, as a temporary emergency
40 supplier of liquidity in a panic, has continued and should
41 continue going forward. But in the post nancial crisis period,
42 the Fed has been forced to accommodate the extra cash
43 demands of households and rms confronting a world of
44 elevated uncertainty about the direction and conduct of
45 monetary and scal policy. That is because higher uncertainty
46 has forced rms and wealthy households to self-insure against
47 possible bad outcomes and to preserve optionality in the face
48 of unforeseen shocks and opportunities.
49 Failure by the Fed to satisfy higher cash demands
50 worsened the Great Depression in the United States and the
51 deationary lost decade in Japan. These elevated, postcrisis
52 cash needs explain why the Fed’s rapid additions to the
53 monetary base through quantitative easing have been followed
54 by disination, not ination, as many have predicted. Chairman
55 Yellen will have to be vigilant to avoid tightening too soon,
56 while uncertainty remains high.
Makin, John H. The challenge of a lifetime. In: The international economy. Fall 2013, p. 10-11. Available at: .
international- economy.com>. Adapted. Retrieved on: March 1, 2014.
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2. INGLêS
(Diplomacia – 2014 – CESPE) Based on the article (text 3), decide
if the items are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) According to Makin, Americans are dissatised with
the Federal Reserve because of its inability to cater for
unemployment and slow economic growth.
(2) Fed members differ as to what the goals for the Federal
Reserve shall be from now on.
(3) The author compares the Federal Reserve’s post-
nancial crisis policy with the pre-nancial policy
which consisted of supporting asset markets nancially
whenever they were at risk.
(4) Despite the wrong decisions taken by the Federal
Reserve, the US economy is heading to stability.
1: Wrong. The public is unsatised because the Fed has been unclear
if it will stop providing extra liquidity or not – “The economy is still on
uncertain footing, and public frustration with the Fed is increasing,
especially since the May taper into September-no-taper serious misstep.”
2: Correct. “Now that President Obama’s Fed Chairman nominee has
been announced, the Fed needs to shift its focus from wondering who
will lead it to what its realistic goals can be. Substantially different
views are held by Fed hawks and doves.” Hawks are those to adopt
more aggressive stances, and doves are those who defend more
moderate policies.
3: Annulled. This item was annulled. It was supposed to be Correct.
“The Fed’s post-nancial crisis mission creep, since 2008, has fueled an
unhealthy codependence between it and the market, akin to the infamous
pre-crisis “Greenspan put,” whereby the Greenspan Fed was expected
to — and did — step in to support nancial markets whenever there arose
a threat to rising asset markets.” However, the text says “whenever there
arose a threat to rising assets”, meaning whenever price stopped rising.
That can be considered different from “whenever they were at risk”.
4: Wrong. “The economy is still on uncertain footing”, which means
it is still unstable.
Gabarito 1E, 2C, 3ANULADA, 4E
(Diplomacia – 2014 – CESPE) Considering the information about
the Federal Reserve conveyed in the article (text 3), decide
if the items are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) It played an important role to lessen the disastrous
effects during both the Great Depression and the Lost
Decade in Japan.
(2) The tapering changes made in 2013 showed the
Federal Reserve is acting according to a global plan
of nancial restructuring.
(3) Its procedures to counterbalance the consequences
of the government’s scal policy are a threat to the
country’s economy.
(4) It has moved away from its sole original mission of
supporting the nancial system in times of crisis.
1: Wrong. Its inaction worsened the effects of the Great Depression
and the Lost Decade in Japan: “Failure by the Fed to satisfy higher cash
demands worsened the Great Depression in the United States and the
deationary lost decade in Japan.
2: Wrong. The Fed seems to be improvising: “The Fed seems to be
making up policy as it goes along.”
3: Annulled. This item was also cancelled: the word “threat” is too strong
here. The Fed’s attempt to offset the government’s tight scal policy is a
problem, but the text does not explicitly states it threatens the economy.
Thus, this item is ambiguous. “The Federal Reserve’s temptation to pursue
an overly ambitious monetary policy aimed at offsetting the damage to the
economy arising from poorly conducted scal policy. Now that President
Obama’s Fed Chairman nominee has been announced, the Fed needs to
shift its focus from wondering who will lead it to what its realistic goals
can be. Substantially different views are held by Fed hawks and doves.”
4: Wrong. That mission continues, but others have been added: “Its
original role was to be the lender of last resort in a nancial crisis. That
role, as a temporary emergency supplier of liquidity in a panic, has
continued and should continue going forward.”
Gabarito 1E, 2E, 3ANULADA, 4E
(Diplomacia – 2014 – CESPE) Based on the article (text 3), decide
if the items are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) The word “creep” (R.22) refers to widening of the
Federal Reserve’s mission in the post-nancial crisis.
(2) By saying that Janet Yellen “will have a lot on her plate
in the coming months” (R.2-3), the author implies she
will have too many issues to worry about or deal with
during her chairmanship.
(3) The use of “hawks and doves” (R.13) to refer to the
Fed members illustrates the extent of the divergence
between the two opposing groups in the organization.
(4) “bungling” (R.29) can be replaced by recovery without
changes in the original meaning of the sentence.
1: Correct. According to the Oxford Dictionary, “creep” means “Slow
steady movement, especially when imperceptible.”
2: Annulled. This item was annulled because the expression “to have a
lot on one’s plate” means the person is extremely busy and has many
issues to handle, but it does not imply failure to accomplish something,
as the use of “too many issues to worry about” suggests. Thus, this
is an ambiguous item.
3: Correct. As mentioned in question 35, item 2, when one talks about
policy, “hawks” are those who favor more aggressive stances, while
“doves” are generally moderate.
4: Wrong. According to the Oxford Dictionary, “to bungle” means “to
carry out (a task) clumsily or incompetently.”
Gabarito 1C, 2ANULADA, 3C, 4E
Text 4 for questions from 38 to 40.
Bertrand Russell once predicted that the socialization of
reproduction — the supersession of the family by the state
— would “make sex love itself more trivial,” encourage
“a certain triviality in all personal relations,” and “make it
far more difcult to take an interest in anything after one’s
own death.” At rst glance, recent developments appear
to have refuted the rst part of this prediction. Americans
today invest personal relations, particularly the relations
between men and women, with undiminished emotional
importance. The decline of childrearing as a major pre-
occupation has freed sex from its bondage to procreation
and made it possible for people to value erotic life for its
own sake. As the family shrinks to the marital unit, it can
be argued that men and women respond more readily to
each other’s emotional needs, instead of living vicariou-
sly through their offspring. The marriage contract having
lost its binding character, couples now nd it possible,
according to many observers, to ground sexual relations in
something more solid than legal compulsion. In short, the
growing determination to live for the moment, whatever
it may have done to the relations between parents and
children, appears to have established the preconditions
of a new intimacy between men and women.
This appearance is an illusion. The cult of intimacy con-
ceals a growing despair of nding it. Personal relations
crumble under the emotional weight with which they
are burdened.
The inability “to take an interest in anything after one’s
own death,” which gives such urgency to the pursuit of
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144
close personal encounters in the present, makes intimacy
more elusive than ever. The same developments that have
weakened the tie between parents and children have also
undermined relations between men and women. Indeed
the deterioration of marriage contributes in its own right
to the deterioration of care for the young. This last point
is so obvious that only a strenuous propaganda on behalf
of “open marriage” and “creative divorce” prevents us
from grasping it. It is clear, for example, that the growing
incidence of divorce, together with the ever-present
possibility that any given marriage will end in collapse,
adds to the instability of family life and deprives the child
of a measure of emotional security. Enlightened opinion
diverts attention from this general fact by insisting that in
specic cases, parents may do more harm to their chil-
dren by holding a marriage together than by dissolving
it. More often the husband abandons his children to the
wife whose company he nds unbearable, and the wife
smothers the children with incessant yet perfunctory atten-
tions. This particular solution to the problem of marital
strain has become so common that the absence of the
father impresses many observers as the most striking fact
about the contemporary family. Under these conditions,
a divorce in which the mother retains custody of her
children merely raties the existing state of affairs — the
effective emotional desertion of his family by the father.
But the reection that divorce often does no more damage
to children than marriage itself hardly inspires rejoicing.
Christopher Lasch. The Cult of Narcissism. Abacus, Londres,
1980 p. 320-322 (adapted).
(Diplomacia – 2014 – CESPE) Based on the text, decide if the
following statements about the author’s assessment of
the family situation in America are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) Engaging in sexual intercourse exclusively for pleasure
enhances mutual affection between individuals thus
creating a healthier relationship not only between
the couple but also between them and their children.
(2) It is an oversimplication to attribute the destruction of
the basic fabric of the traditional family to the search
for sex for its own sake and to the increasing growth
of the rate of divorce.
(3) The seeds of the destruction of the family in America
can be ultimately found in people’s inability to rise
above the trivialization of personal relations.
(4) The emergence of the nuclear family is the product of
recent developments in social behavior.
1: Wrong. The text says that the superficiality and instability of
relationships between men and women weakens the bonds between
parents and children: “The inability ‘to take an interest in anything after
one’s own death,’ which gives such urgency to the pursuit of close
personal encounters in the present, makes intimacy more elusive than
ever. The same developments that have weakened the tie between parents
and children have also undermined relations between men and women.
Indeed the deterioration of marriage contributes in its own right to the
deterioration of care for the young.”
2: Annulled. This item was annulled because it is has two possible
answers. It can be considered correct if one looks at the complex
processes described in the second paragraph: “The cult of intimacy
conceals a growing despair of nding it. Personal relations crumble
under the emotional weight with which they are burdened.” But it can
also be considered incorrect when one considers the obvious results of
the undoing of the traditional family, as stated in “This last point is so
obvious that only a strenuous propaganda on behalf of “open marriage”
and “creative divorce” prevents us from grasping it”.
3: Correct. “The inability “to take an interest in anything after one’s
own death,” which gives such urgency to the pursuit of close personal
encounters in the present, makes intimacy more elusive than ever.”
4: Wrong. Recent developments point to the growing absence of the
father in the family, with single mothers raising their children: “This
particular solution to the problem of marital strain has become so
common that the absence of the father impresses many observers as
the most striking fact about the contemporary family.”
Gabarito 1E, 2ANULADA, 3C, 4E
(Diplomacia – 2014 – CESPE) Based on the text, decide if the
following statements are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) Living one’s children’s lives and dreams used to be a
far more widespread feature of traditional families in
the US than it is nowadays.
(2) Men and women in the US have become increasingly
aware that it takes money to improve their personal
relations.
(3) The fewer children a couple has, the less binding the
nature of their marriage vows becomes.
(4) The less emphasis Americans place on the procreative
role of sex, the more likely they are to succeed in
enjoying playful sex.
1: Correct. That is the meaning of “vicariously” in “As the family shrinks
to the marital unit, it can be argued that men and women respond more
readily to each other’s emotional needs, instead of living vicariously
through their offspring.”
2: Wrong. There is no such mention to the financial needs of
relationships.
3: Wrong. According to the next, having children can even make divorce
more likely, since the general argument is that bad marriages can hurt
children: “Enlightened opinion diverts attention from this general fact
by insisting that in specic cases, parents may do more harm to their
children by holding a marriage together than by dissolving it.”
4: Correct. “The decline of childrearing as a major preoccupation has
freed sex from its bondage to procreation and made it possible for
people to value erotic life for its own sake.”
Gabarito 1C, 2E, 3E, 4C
(Diplomacia – 2014 – CESPE) Based on the text, decide if the
following statements about the author’s position about the
trivialization of personal relations are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) He is non-committal about it, assuming this is an
inescapable trend in contemporary American life.
(2) He is critical of it because he believes it led to the
loosening of the bond between parents and children.
(3) He is receptive to it for he believes traditional child
raising consumes a disproportionate amount of a
couple’s efforts and energy.
(4) He has mixed feelings about it.
1: Wrong. He criticizes it: “The cult of intimacy conceals a growing
despair of nding it. Personal relations crumble under the emotional
weight with which they are burdened.”
2: Correct. “Indeed the deterioration of marriage contributes in its own
right to the deterioration of care for the young.”
3: Wrong. He believes that both parents and children are hurt by these
trends, as evidenced, for example, by the text’s last sentence: “the
reection that divorce often does no more damage to children than
marriage itself hardly inspires rejoicing.”
4: Wrong. He is critical of it. “To have mixed feelings” means one is
undecided about the overall negative or positive quality of something.
Gabarito 1E, 2C, 3E, 4E
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145
2. INGLêS
Text 5 for questions from 41 to 44.
1 In the pre-dawn of June 16th, a lone voice broke the
stillness. The mullahs summoned the men to prayers; for two
hours the priests called and the men responded in a gathering
4 rhythmic crescendo to psych them up to ght and die.
The defenders crouched behind their makeshift barricades,
listening to the eerie chants rising and falling in the darkness
7 beyond. La Vallete had sent reinforcements across and the
defenders, if already weary, were well ordered. Each man had
his duty and his post. They were grouped in threes: one
10 arquebusier to two pikemen. Large quantities of re weapons
had been stock piled, rocks gathered, and quantities of bread
soaked in wine. Barrels of water stood behind the parapets into
13 which men torched by adhesive re could hurl themselves.
As the sun rose, there was a searching barrage of re
‘so that the earth and the air shook’, and then Mustapha
16 signalled the advance along a huge crescent. Suleiman’s
imperial standard was unfurled; a turban was hoisted on a
spear, farther down the line there was an answering puff of
19 smoke. An extraordinary array of banners and shields were
visible surging forward, ‘painted with extraordinary designs,
some with devices of different birds, some with scorpions and
22 with Arab lettering’. In the front rank men ran wildly towards
the walls, calling out the name of Allah in a crescendo of
shouts. From the battlements came the Christian countercalls:
25 Jesus, Mary, St Michael, St James and St George — ‘according
to the devotion of each man’. There was a furious push towards
the bridge; scaling ladders were put to the walls and battle was
28 joined. The whole front was a struggling mass of humanity ghting hand to hand.
Roger Crowley. Empires of the Sea, The Final Battle for the Mediterranean, 1521-1580, Faber and Faber, 2008, p. 1-2.
(Diplomacia – 2014 – CESPE) Based on the text, decide if the
following statements concerning the author’s intentions
are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) He describes in detail the high standards the military
had attained in the elds of war tactics and weaponry
by the time of the Crusades.
(2) He aims mainly at creating an atmosphere that brings
to his readers’ minds all the colours, sounds, smells
and actions of a particular event.
(3) He describes some of the build-up to a battle between
adherents of Islam and Christians.
(4) He expresses strong criticism of both Christians and
Muslims’ bigotry and religious fanaticism.
1: Wrong. The battle was largely unorganized and rudimentary: “The
whole front was a struggling mass of humanity ghting hand to hand.”
2: Wrong. There is no mention of smells in the text.
3: Correct. The whole text, up until the last two sentences, narrates the
preparations for this battle.
4: Wrong. The text is merely descriptive. At no point does the author
make such a judgement.
Gabarito 1E, 2E, 3C, 4E
(Diplomacia – 2014 – CESPE) Decide if the statements about the
following sentence are right (C) or wrong (E): “Barrels of
water stood behind the parapets into which men torched
by adhesive re could hurl themselves” (R.12-13).
(1) Even in a situation of conict, water is essential for
soldiers’ personal hygiene.
(2) Soldiers would pour boiling water on their enemies if
they tried to climb up the walls of their fortress.
(3) Men who had been set re to needed water badly to
relieve the pain caused by burns.
(4) Soldiers needed this water to quench their thirst since
this battle probably took place in a dry place.
1: Wrong. The water was intended for men to put out the adhesive re
that might stick on them.
2: Wrong. for the same reason described above.
3: Correct. That was the intention of the water barrels.
4: Wrong. Hydrating the soldiers was the not what the water barrels
were for.
Gabarito 1E, 2E, 3C, 4E
(Diplomacia – 2014 – CESPE) Based on the text, decide if the
following statements about the battle ground are right
(C) or wrong (E).
(1) Christian soldiers, unlike their Muslim counterparts,
adopted a clearly syncretic approach as they sought
divine protection.
(2) Standards and banners were not key items in the
war paraphernalia Christians had at their disposal in
medieval times.
(3) The actual ght in the battleeld erupted only when
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MARK HUGHES, ANTHONY ROSENBERG E RODRIGO ARMSTRONG
146
daylight broke.
(4) Mustapha is probably one of Suleiman’s generals.
1: Wrong. There is no evidence in the text that the Christians appealed
to deities that did not originally belong to Christian faith and tradition.
2: Wrong. While the text does not mention such paraphernalia on the
side of the Christians, it does not say that they did not have it. In reality,
this would have been a good item to be left blank.
3: Correct. “As the sun rose, there was a searching barrage of re
‘so that the earth and the air shook’, and then Mustapha signalled the
advance along a huge crescent”
4: Correct. He was the one who the orders for the troops to advance.
Gabarito 1E, 2E, 3C, 4C
(Diplomacia – 2014 – CESPE) Concerning the battle proper,
decide based on the text if the following statements are
right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) The Muslim preference for animals such as birds and
scorpions suggests that they are wild warriors.
(2) At the time of the battle described, there was a widely
held belief among catholics that female saints were
of little avail in war.
(3) The Muslims seemed to be defending a fortified
building.
(4) Both groups sought spiritual and psychological support
in their respective religions to engage in warfare.
1: Wrong. The text does not state that anywhere.
2: Wrong. There is no such suggestion in the text, and one of the deities
mentioned is Mary.
3: Wrong. The Christians are the ones defending the castle or fortress.
4: Correct. “In the front rank men ran wildly towards the walls, calling
out the name of Allah in a crescendo of shouts. From the battlements
came the Christian countercalls: Jesus, Mary, St Michael, St James and
St George — ‘according to the devotion of each man’.”
Gabarito 1E, 2E, 3E, 4C
This text refers to questions from 29 through 32.
1 It is one of the most pressing questions of our time:
what is the relationship between nancial and environmental
meltdown? Are the two crises the same thing, needing to be
4 dealt with together? Or do we, as even some business leaders
suggest, have to x the environment before we can x the
economy? A slew of books, ebooks, pamphlets and journals
7 are tackling this thorny question.
You might expect a strong “yes” from the greens to
xing the environment ahead of the economy. And in The
10 Environmental Debt: The hidden costs of a changing global
economy, long-time Greenpeace activist Amy Larkin does
Make a cogente argument for this. The high costs of coping with
13 extreme weather, pollution and declining resources are, she
says, catching up with capitalism. Our carefree attitude to the
“externalities” of wealth generation has run up an
16 environmental debt that is loading unsustainable nancial debt
on us all.
But environmentalists are not the only ones making
19 the link. In Wall Street and the City, there is similar talk that
the worst fears of environmentalists are coming to pass. As
shortages of natural resources push up prices, a looming
22 resource crunch is manifested in market meltdown.
Paul Donovan and Julie Hudson, economists for the
Swiss bank UBS, agree. They argue that “there is a second
25 credit crunch”, an environmental one. By ransacking global
resources and enfeebling ecosystems, the authors say, we are
drawing down environmental credit as surely as reckless
28 spending on a credit card draws down nancial credit. The two
crunches have “a symbiotic relationship”, they argue: “The
party has to stop.”
31 The synergies between nancial and environmental
Crunches may be complex, but at root, many economistas argue
that reckless consumption, driven by easy credit, helped fuel
34 nancial crisis. Environmentalists agree that the same
consumer binge drove up environmental debt.
F. Pearce. What do we x rst – environment or economy? Newscientist. July 8th, 2013 (adapted).
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147
2. INGLêS
(Diplomacia – 2013 – CESPE) According to the text,
(A) Both environmentalists and economists agree that
consumption is at the heart of the current nancial
and environmental crises.
(B) the need to understand the current capitalist crisis is
urging environmentalists and economists to launch
publications on the issue.
(C) nancial and environmental debts have been primarily
affecting wealthy countries due to their reckless
consumption attitude.
(D) Business and nance experts hadwarned Greenpeace
activists about the nancial consequences of natural
resource shortages.
(E) The synergetic link between economy and environment
points to the need to tackle nancial issues ahead of
environmental ones.
A: Correct. This item is correct. Last paragraph: “economists argue that
reckless consumption, driven by easy credit, helped fuel the nancial
crisis. Environmentalists agree that the same consumer binge drove
up environmental debt.”
B: Correct. This item can also be considered correct, although it less
explicit than the previous one: “A slew of books, e-books, pamphlets
and journals 7 are tackling this thorny question.”(line 6). Then, in the
next two paragraphs, the text goes to say that both environmentalists
and economists are making the claim that the two crises go hand-in-
hand. Since this second item can be considered correct, the whole
question was annulled.
C: Wrong. There is no such mention to the differences in impact caused
by countries with different level of development.
D: Wrong. There is no such mention to such warning. The connection
between environmentalists and business and nance experts happens
through the following sentence: “In Wall Street and the City, there is
similar talk that the worst fears of environmentalists are coming to
pass” (Line 19)
E: Wrong. The text explicitly mentions handling the environment rst:
“As shortages of natural resources push up prices, a looming resource
crunch is manifested in market meltdown.” (Line 21)
Gabarito ANULADA
(Diplomacia – 2013 – CESPE) Based on the text, choose the
correct answer.
(A) The expression. “consumer binge”(R.35) is used as an
antonym for the expression. “reckless consumption”
(R.33).
(B) The word “cogent”(R.12) suggests that the argument
put forward by Amy Larkinisill-founded.
(C) If the verb “catching up with” (R.14) is replaced by
stemming from, the meaning of the sentence remains
unaltered.
(D) The word “looming” (R.21) is used as a synonym for
unlikely.
(E) The words “crunch” (R.22) and “crunches” (R.29) are
used as synonyms for crisis and crises, respectively.
A: Wrong. According to the Oxford Dictionary, “binge” means “A
period of excessive indulgence in an activity, especially drinking
alcohol or eating”, while “reckless” means “Heedless of danger or the
consequences of one’s actions; rash or impetuous.” The expressions
are thus synonymous.
B: Wrong. “Cogent” means, according to the Oxford Dictionary, “(of
an argument or case) clear, logical, and convincing.” Therefore, her
argument is credible.
C: Wrong. According to the Oxford Dictionary, “to catch up with” means
“Succeed in reaching a person who is ahead of one”, while “to stem
from” means “Originate in or be caused by.”
D: Wrong. “To loom” means “Appear as a vague form, especially one
that is large or threatening.”
E: Correct. One of the meanings of the word “crunch” is “A severe
shortage of money or credit.” In this case, it is synonymous with
“crisis”, and they both have the plural forms “crunches” and “crises”.
Gabarito E
(Diplomacia – 2013 – CESPE) The sentence “By ransacking global
(…) credit card draws down nancial credit” (R.25-28)
meansthat,
(A) By ignoring the need to protect the environment, our
society is increasingly focused on prot rather than
quality of life.
(B) due to our reckless behavior towards the environment,
less nancial support has been assigned to nature-
saving projects.
(C) due to the scarcity of environmental fund-raising
actions, mankind is making the exploitation of natural
resources nancially unviable.
(D) by tampering with the world biomass, we are affecting
investments in the area as much as economic problems
affect us.
(E) By destroying nature, we are reducing our
environmental funds just like too many debts reduce
our nancial credibility.
First, it is necessary to understand the sentence, which means that,
because humanity is using natural resources irresponsibly, it is
accumulating environmental debt, just like people who accumulate
nancial debt because of overusing their credit cards.
A: Wrong. There is no mention to prots in the original sentence.
B: Wrong. There is no mention to such projects.
C: Wrong. There is no mention to such fund-raising actions.
D: Wrong. There is no mention to investments in biomass.
E: Correct. That is the aforementioned comparison.
Gabarito E
(Diplomacia – 2013 – CESPE).Based on the text, judge if the
items below are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) Wall Street and the City experts foresee a complete
market breakdown.
(2) As far as the main issue of the text is concerned, the
two economists of the Swiss bank are of the same
opinion as the ecologist-author.
(3) Several bank owners claim the economic crisis should
be solved rst.
(4) Amy Larkin believes the worldwide scarcity of
resources is affecting the world’s economy.
1: Wrong. They believe that a crisis is already occurring and the issues
must be addressed together: “In Wall Street and the City, there is similar
talk that the worst fears of environmentalists are coming to pass. As
shortages of natural resources push up prices, a looming resource
crunch is manifested in market meltdown” (Line 20).
2: Annulled. This question was supposed to be correct, since, in line
9, the text says “And in The Environmental Debt: The hidden costs of a
changing global economy, long-time Greenpeace activist Amy Larkin
does make a cogent argument for this. The high costs of coping with
extreme weather, pollution and declining resources are, she says,
catching up with capitalism”, while, in line 23, it says “Paul Donovan and
Julie Hudson, economists for the Swiss bank UBS, agree.” However, this
line refers more easily to the arguments offered by Wall Street and City
experts, not to Ami Larkin. This weak link caused the item to be annulled.
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148
3: Wrong. On line 8, the text says “You might expect a strong “yes”
from the greens to xing the environment ahead of the economy”. And
that is the argument with which the nancial experts agree.
4: Correct. Starting on line 8, the text says: “You might expect a strong “yes”
from the greens to xing the environment ahead of the economy. And in
The Environmental Debt: The hidden costs of a changing global economy,
long-time Greenpeace activist Amy Larkin does make a cogent argument for
this. The high costs of coping with extreme weather, pollution and declining
resources are, she says, catching up with capitalism”.
Gabarito 1E, 2ANULADA, 3E, 4C
This text refers to questions 33 and 34.
1 The leaders of the G8 are convening in Northern
Ireland for the 39th G8 Summit. The backdrop for this two-day
Meeting of the globe’s preeminente economic powers is a world
4 facing multiple global crises, all of which demand that summit
participants engage in constructive dialogue that leads to
measurable progress. Despite that need, the annual G8
7 Summits are known more for eliciting empty political promises
And saddling host cities with exorbitant costs.
The baby boomer generation presidents and prime
10 ministers at the G8 Summit are facing increasingly frustrated
populations. With economic instability entrenching in the
West, a still teetering world nancial order, and escalating
13 tensions in the Middle East, an entire generation of Young
people is growing up without opportunity, and with few
Prospects for change. But persistente unemployment, declining
16 standards in health care and education, and environmental
Degradation are also driving growing numbers of Young people
To demand sophisticated and coordinated global action.
19 From this mess, two signicant questions arise: are
The boomer generation leaders simply incapable of consensus-
driven international cooperation, one that sets aside national
22 Interests for the collective good of humanity? And if this is the
case, are tomorrow’s Facebook generation leaders doomed to
Inherit the quagmire of their political predecessors?
R. Onley. The future of global diplomacy. June 17th, 2013(adapted).
(Diplomacia – 2013 – CESPE) Based on the text, choose the
correct statement.
(A) The cities that host G8 summits generally prot from
the presence of presidentes and ministers.
(B) The reasons for young people’s frustrations include
political, nancial and economic issues.
(C) In the 39th G8 Summit meeting, empty promises will
give room to debates on the global crises.
(D) Young people are planning demonstrations to show
their dissatisfaction to the G8 Summit leaders.
(E) The actions taken for international cooperation are
condemned by the new Facebook generation leaders.
A: Wrong. See lines 7 and 8: “the annual G8 Summits are known more
[…] saddling host cities with exorbitant costs”.
B: Correct. Starting on line 11, the text conrms such issues: “With
economic instability entrenching in the West, a still teetering world
nancial order, and escalating tensions in the Middle East, an entire
generation of young people is growing up without opportunity, and with
few prospects for change.”
C: Wrong. The author does not know if the leaders are capable of more
than promises, as stated in the last paragraph: “From this mess, two
signicant questions arise: are the boomer generation leaders simply
incapable of consensus driven international cooperation, one that sets
aside national interests for the collective good of humanity?”
D: Wrong. Although young people are demanding action, there is no
mention to such demonstrations – meaning, street protests.
E: Wrong. The text asks if the Facebook generation will be able to
coordinate global action better than the baby boomer generation once
they reach positions of power.
Gabarito B
(Diplomacia – 2013 – CESPE) In the text, “that need” (R.6) refers to
(A) convening in Ireland.
(B) measuring progress.
(C) engaging in dialogue.
(D) facing global crises.
(E) making promises.
The passage is the following: “The backdrop for this two-day meeting
of the globe’s preeminent economic powers is a world facing multiple
global crises, all of which demand that summit participants engage in
constructive dialogue that leads to measurable progress. Despite that
need, the annual G8 summits are known more for eliciting empty political
promises and saddling host cities with exorbitant costs.” The need to
which the last sentence refers is “that summit participants engage in
constructive dialogue”, as the relation between the word “demand”
and “need” evidences. The only alternative that matches that is letter C.
Gabarito C
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149
2. INGLêS
This text refers to questions 35 and 36.
1 The Oxford Learner’s Dictionary denes
diplomacy as “(…) the management of relations between
Countries (…) art of or skill in dealing with people; tact (…)”.
4 Indeed it is the art of convincing others to perceive things your
way, or at least to have second thoughts about theirs. It is the
Combination of logic and Science on the one hand with the gift
7 of proper language packaging and presentation necessary to
convince others.
The power of language rests on the fact that it
10 contains ideas: and ideas are, according to Plato, more
enduring, indeed more permanent than matter. Ideas can be
suppressed, or go underground but unlike a statue or any other
13 material things they cannot be shattered. They can only be met
and dealt with by other ideas. Historically it is the magic of
words that bewitched, enthralled and sometimes intoxicated
16 people and led them to great or mean deeds. The language of
diplomacy, often like poetry, has the ability to move people
from mood to mood. Whether demagogy or whether giving
19 expression to noble ideologies, theories, or even religious
creeds, ordinary language or that of diplomacy has a
momentum and an inner driving force that is ageless.
K.S. Abu Jaber, Language and Diplomacy. In:
J. Kurbalija; H. Slavi (Eds.) Language and Diplomacy, p. 53. Malta: DiploProjects, 2001.
(Diplomacia – 2013 – CESPE) According to the author,
(A) common language opposes poetry.
(B) diplomacy is related to persuasion.
(C) ideas last less than material things.
(D) Language is a demagogical expression.
(E) ideologies require a proper language.
A: Wrong. The text does not mention a common language shared between people. The text does mention ordinary language (Line 19 and 20),
but there is no such opposition.
B: Correct. Starting on line 4: “(Diplomacy) is the art of convincing others to perceive things your way, or at least to have second thoughts about theirs”.
C: Wrong. The text says that, according to Plato, ideas are more enduring than matter.
D: Wrong. According to the text, starting on line 17, the language of diplomacy can either demagogical or noble.
E: Wrong. The text does not comment such need.
Gabarito B
(Diplomacia – 2013 – CESPE) In relation to the pronouns shown in bold in the text above, judge if the items below are right
(C) or wrong (E).
(1) The pronoun “that” (R.21) refers to “language” (R.20).
(2) The pronoun “theirs” (R.5) refers to “others” (R.4).
(3) The pronoun “It” (R.5) refers to “diplomacy” (R.2).
(4) The pronoun “they” (R.13) refers to “Ideas” (R.11).
1: Wrong. It refers to “driving force”.
2: Wrong. It refers to the others’ thoughts or ideas.
3: Correct. One change “it” for “diplomacy” and say “Diplomacy is the art of convincing others…”.
4: Correct. The substitution “ideas cannot be shattered” works.
Gabarito 1E, 2E, 3C, 4C
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MARK HUGHES, ANTHONY ROSENBERG E RODRIGO ARMSTRONG
150
This text refers to questions from 37 through 39.
Taking a Cue From Bernanke a Little Too Far
1 Financial advisers have been eldingcallsfrom
Shaken investors in recente weeks, particular lyretirees, who are
nervous that a bond Market crash is on the horizon.
4 You can hardly blame them. Investors have been
eeing bonds in droves; a record $ 76.5 billion poured out of
bond funds and exchange-traded funds since June. That
7 exceeds the previous record, according to TrimTabs, when
$ 41.8 billion streamed out of the funds in October 2008 and
the nancial crisis was in full force.
10 But the rush for the exits really means one thing:
Investors are betting that interest rates are about to begin their
Upward trajectory, something that’s been expected for several
13 years now.
Their cue came from the Federal Reserve chairman,
BenBernanke, who recently suggested that the economic
16 recovery might allow the central bank to ease its efforts to
stimulate the economy. That includes scaling back its bond-
buying program beginning later this year.
19 So the big fear is that interest rates are poised to rise
much further, driving down bond prices; the two move in
opposite directions.
22 A Barclays index tracking a broad swath of
investment-grade bonds lost 3.77 percent from the beginning
of May through Thursday, according to Morningstar. United
25 States government notes with maturities of 10 years or longer,
however, lost an average of 10.8 percent over the same period.
Making a bet on interest rates is no diferente from
28 trying to predict the next big drop in stocks, or jumping into
the Market when it appears to be poised to surge higher. These
sort of emotional moves are exactly why research shows that
31 investors’ returns tend to trail the broader market.
And it’s also why many nancial advisers suggest
ignoring the noise, as long as you have a smart assortment of
34 bond funds that will provide stability when stocks inevitably
tumble once again.
“It’s a futile game to base portfolio moves on interest
37 rate guesses,” said Milo Benningeld, a nancial adviser in
San Francisco. “We don’t have to look any further than highly
regarded Pimco manager Bill Gross, whose horrible interest
40 rate bet against Treasuries in 2011 landed him in the bottom 15
percent of fund managers in his category that year. Investors
should take a strategic approach designed around the reason
43 they hold bonds — and then sit tight whenever hedge funds
and other institutions shake the ground around them.”
The main reason longer-term investors hold bonds, of
46 course, is to provide a steadying force. And though today’s
Lower yields provide less of a cushion — the 10-year Treasury
Is yielding about 2.5 percent — bonds still remain the best, if
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151
2. INGLêS
49 imperfect, foil to stocks.
“The role of bonds in a portfolio has Always been to
be a ballast or a diversier to equity risk,” said Francis
52 Kinniry, a principal in the Vanguard Investment Strategy
Group. “And that is very true today. Yields are low, but this is
What a bear Market in bonds looks like.”
Internet: (adapted).
(Diplomacia – 2013 – CESPE) The words “poised” (R.19) and
“yields” (R.47 and 53) mean, respectively,
(A) etiolated and prots.
(B) shaken and gains.
(C) ready and risks.
(D) bolstered and outlay.
(E) on the verge and returns.
According to the Oxford Dictionary, “to be poised” means: “Be ready
and prepared to do something”. Example: ‘teachers are poised to
resume their attack on government school tests’. In turn, “yield” means
“An amount produced of an agricultural or industrial product” and “A
nancial return”. Therefore:
A: Wrong. “Etiolated” means “pale and drawn out due to a lack of light”.
B: Wrong.
C: Wrong.
D: Wrong. “To bolster” means “to support or strengthen”, and “outlay”
means “An amount of money spent on something”. E Right.
Gabarito E
(Diplomacia – 2013 – CESPE) According to the text, judge if the
following items are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) According to at least one nancial adviser, it’s naïve
to correlate bonds with interest rates.
(2) The main contention of the article is that investors
should be skeptical about Bernanke’s remark in
relation to the effects of the American economic
recovery.
(3) The bond market is in such a predicament due to
misjudgment on the part of the American central
bank’s chairperson.
(4) In general, bonds provide stability to an investor’s
portfolio.
1: Wrong. In the 5th paragraph, it is clearly stated: “So the big fear is
that interest rates are poised to rise much further, driving down bond
prices; the two move in opposite directions.”
2: Wrong. The main argument of the text is that portfolio decisions
should not be based on interest rate guesses – see line 36: “’It’s a
futile game to base portfolio moves on interest rate guesses,’ said Milo
Benningeld, a nancial adviser in San Francisco.”
3: Wrong. The instability comes from investors’ herd behavior – see
line 29: “These sort of emotional moves are exactly why research shows
that investors’ returns tend to trail the broader market.”
4: Correct. Line 50: “’The role of bonds in a portfolio has always been
to be a ballast or a diversier to equity risk,’ said Francis Kinniry, a
principal in the Vanguard Investment Strategy Group”.
abarito: 1E, 2E, 3E, 4C
(Diplomacia – 2013 – CESPE) Regarding the text, judge if the
items below are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) The word “from” in the excerpt “Making a bet on
interest rates is no different from trying to predict the
next big drop in stocks, or jumping into the Market
when it appears to be poised to surge higher. ”
(R.27-29) may be replaced by the word then with no
interference in the grammar correction of the sentence.
(2) In the sentence “Their cue came from the Federal
Reserve chairman, Bem Bernanke, who recently
suggested that the economic recovery might allow
the central bank to ease its efforts to stimulate the
economy. ” (R.14-17) the relative pronoun “who”
may be replaced by whom in more formal contexts.
(3) In the sentence “That includes scaling back its bond-
buying program beginning later this year.” (R.17-18),
the pronoun “its” refers to “economy”, in the previous
sentence.
(4) In the sentence “United States government notes
with maturities of 10 years or longer, however, lost
an average of 10.8 percent over the same period.”
(R.24-26), the adverb. “however” may be moved to
the beginning of the sentence without interfering in
the meaning.
1: Wrong. This question would have been correct if the suggested word
were “than”, not “then”. The former is used for comparisons; the latter
to refer to a point in time.
2: Wrong. The relative pronoun “who” is used to refer to people and
it acts as the subject of a sentence. The relative pronoun “whom” also
refers to people, but it acts as the object of a verb or clause.
3: Wrong. “Its” refers to the central bank.
4: Correct. The conjunction may be placed at the beginning or in the
middle of the sentence.
Gabarito 1E, 2E, 3E, 4C
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MARK HUGHES, ANTHONY ROSENBERG E RODRIGO ARMSTRONG
152
This text refers to question 40.
(…)
1 But the devotion of Minor’s whole strength was
Beginning to prove taxing. His kindly friend Doctor Nicholson
Retired in 1895 — still in pain from being attacked by a patient
4 six years earlier, who hit him on the head with a brick
Concealed in a sock. He was replaced by Doctor Brayn, a man
Selected (for more than his name alone, one trusts) by a Home
7 Ofce that felt a stricter regime needed to be employed at the
asylum.
Brayn was indeed a martinet, a jailer of the old school
10 who would have done well at any prison farm. But he did as
the government required: There were no escapes during his
term of ofce (there had been several before, causing
13 widespread alarm), and in the rst year two hundred Thousand
hours of solitary connement were logged by the more
fractious inmates. He was widely feared and loathed by the
16 patients — as well as by Doctor Murray, who thought he was
treating Minor heartlessly.
(…)
19 One curious snippet of information came from the
United States later that same year, when it was noted rather
Laconically that two of Minor’s Family had recently killed
22 themselves — the letter going on to warn the staff at
Broadmoor that great care should be taken lest whatever
madness gripped their patient turned out to have a hereditary
25 nature. But even if the staff thought Minor a possible suicide
risk, no restrictions were placed on him as a result of the
American information.
28 Some years before he had asked for a pocket knife,
with which he might trim the uncut pages of some of the rst
Editions of the books he had ordered: There is no indication
31 that he was asked to hand it back, even with the harsh Doctor
Brayn in charge. No other patient was allowed to keep a knife,
but with his twin cells, his bottles, and his books, and with his
34 part-time servant, William Minor seemed still to belong to a
different category from most others in Broadmoor at the time.
In the year following the disclosure about his
37 relatives, the les speak of Minor’s having started to take
walks out on the Terrace in all weathers, angrily denouncing
those who tried to persuade him to come back in during one
40 especially violent snowstorm, insisting in his imperious way
That it was his business alone if he wished to catch a cold. He
Had more freedom of choice and movement than most.
43 (…)
Simon Winschester. The Professor and the Madman–A Tale of Murder, Insanity, and the Making of the Oxford English Dictionary.
Harper Perennial, 2005, p. 182-3(adapted).
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153
2. INGLêS
(Diplomacia – 2013 – CESPE) Each of the options below presents
an excerpt taken from the text and a version of the same
excerpt. Choose the one which has retained most of the
original meaning found in the text.
(A) “In the year following the disclosure about his
relatives, the les speak of Minor’s having started to
take walks out on the Terrace in all weathers, angrily
denouncing those who tried to persuade him to come
back in…” (R.36-39) /In the year after the revelation
about his relatives, the archives show that Minor had
started to take walks out on the Terrace during any
kind of weather, angrily extolling people who tried
to convince him to come back in…
(B) “He was replaced by Doctor Brayn, a man selected
(…) by a Home Ofce that felt a stricter regime needed
to be employed at the asylum.” (R.5-8) / He was
substituted by Doctor Brayn, a man picked over (…)
by a Home Ofce who believed a more rigid regimen
needed to be established at the asylum.
(C) “Brayn was indeed a martinet, a jailer of the old school
who would have done well at any prison farm” (R.9-
10) /Brayn was really punctilious, a traditional jailer
who would have been successful working at any prison
farm.
(D) “There were no escapes during his term of ofce (…),
and in the rst year two hundred thousand hours
of solitary connement were logged by the more
fractious inmates.” (R.11-15)/ No one escaped while
he was in ofce (…), and in the rst year of his mandate
two hundred thousand hours of solitary connement
were registered by the more ingratiating prisoners.
(E) “One curious snippet of information came from
the United States later that same year, when it was
noted rather laconically that two of Minor’s Family
had recently killed themselves…” (R.19-22) /One
odd piece of information came from the United
States later that same year, when it was noted rather
verbosely that two of Minor’s relatives had recently
killed themselves…
A: Wrong. According to the Oxford Dictionary, “to extol” means “to
praise highly”.
B: Wrong. According to the Oxford Dictionary, “to pick over” means
“to examine an assortment of items”. “Regime” and “regimen” can
indeed be synonymous.
C: Correct. According to the Oxford Dictionary, “martinet” means
“a strict disciplinarian”, while “punctilious” means “strict or exact in
observance of the conduct of actions”.
D: Wrong. According to the Oxford Dictionary, “ingratiating” means
“charming and pleasing”.
E: Wrong. According to the Oxford Dictionary, “laconically” means
“using few words”, i.e. the opposite of “verbosely”.
Gabarito C
This text refers to the following three questions.
Godzilla’s grandchildren
1 In Japan there is no kudos in going to jail for your art.
Bending the rules, let alone breaking them, is largely taboo.
That was one reason Toshinori Mizuno was terried as he
4 worked undercover at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear-power
plant, trying to get the shot that shows him in front of the
mangled third reactor holding up a referee’s red card. He was
7 also terried of the radiation, which registered its highest
reading where he took the photograph. The only reason he did
not arouse suspicion, he says, is because he was in regulation
10 radiation kit. And in Japan people rarely challenge a man in
uniform.
Mr. Mizuno is part of ChimPom, a six-person
13 collective of largely unschooled artists who have spent a lot of
time getting into tight spots since the disaster, and are
engagingly thoughtful about the results.
16 It is easy to dismiss ChimPom’s work as a publicity
stunt. But the artists’ actions speak at least as loudly as their
images. There is a logic to their seven years of guerrilla art that
19 has become clearer since the nuclear disaster of March 11th
2011. In fact, Noi Sawaragi, a prominent art critic, says they
may be hinting at a new direction in Japanese contemporary
22 art.
Radiation and nuclear annihilation have suffused
Japan’s subculture since the lm Gojira (the Japanese
25 Godzilla) in 1954. The two themes crop up repeatedly in
manga and anime cartoons.
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MARK HUGHES, ANTHONY ROSENBERG E RODRIGO ARMSTRONG
154
Other young artists are ploughing similar ground.
28 Kota Takeuchi, for instance, secretly took a job at Fukushima
Dai-ichi and is recorded pointing an angry nger at the camera
that streams live images of the site. Later he used public news
31 conferences to pressure Tepco, operator of the plant, about the
conditions of its workers inside. His work, like ChimPom’s,
blurs the distinction between art and activism.
34 Japanese political art is unusual and the new
subversiveness could be a breath of fresh air; if only anyone
noticed. The ChimPom artists have received scant coverage in
37 the stuffy arts pages of the national newspapers. The group
held just one show of Mr. Mizuno’s reactor photographs in
Japan. He says: “The timing has not been right. The media will
40 just want to make the work look like a crime.”
Internet: (adapted).
(Diplomacia – 2012 – CESPE) According to the text, judge if the
following items are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) Toshinori Mizuno was more concerned with the
radiation he was exposed to while he was at the
nuclear-power plant than with the fact that his art
challenged the Japanese established rules.
(2) Some Fukushima Dai-ichi employers have turned into
political activists after the accident of 2011.
(3) The Japanese in general are enthusiastic about artists
who get in trouble for breaking the traditional dogmas
prevalent in the artistic milieu.
(4) Mr. Mizuno believes the radiation kit protected him
from more than the radiation in the area.
1: Wrong. It cannot be asserted that he was more afraid of the radiation.
He was equally ‘terried’ of both being caught and of the radiation
(lines 3 and 7);
2: Wrong. The artists deliberately took jobs in order to gain access to
the plant. They were not employees of the company before the accident;
3: Wrong. (Line 1) There is no kudos/acclaim/praise in Japan for going
to jail for your art;
4: Correct. (Line 10) He believes it also protected him from being
challenged and from arousing suspicion due to Japanese deference to
people in ofcial uniforms.
Gabarito 1E, 2E, 3E, 4C
(Diplomacia – 2012 – CESPE) The words “mangled” ( l.6) and
“suffused” ( l.23) mean respectively
(A) ruined and permeated.
(B) mutilated and obscured.
(C) subdued and covered.
(D) humongous and imbued.
(E) torn and zeroed in on.
A: Correct. Mangled means mutilated or ruined. Suffused means
pervaded or permeated;
B: Wrong. Mutilated means mangled. Obscured means concealed
or hidden;
C: Wrong. Subdued means calm or conquered. Covered is too physical
to mean suffused;
D: Wrong. Humungous means enormous. Imbued means permeated;
E: Wrong. Torn is the past participle of tear – this could work as a
synonym for mangled but not quite as strong. Zeroed in on means to
target or to focus on.
Gabarito “A”
(Diplomacia – 2012 – CESPE) Based on the text, it is correct to
say that ChimPom
(A) adopts some artistic-political stance which is being
largely ignored by the Japanese media nationwide.
(B) produces art which is dissonant with its members’
attitudes.
(C) is unique in mixing art with political protest.
(D) is a large group of untrained artists whose work blend
art and political activism.
(E) creates art which is avant-garde, and is setting the path
of modern art in Japan.
A: Correct. The group adopts a combination of art and politics, but it
receives scant/little attention (line 36) from the stuffy/formal arts pages
of national newspapers;
B: Wrong. Dissonant means unharmonious/disagreeing – as the
members are so committed, this is a strange assertion to make;
C: Wrong. (Line 28) Kota Takeuchi is also an artist/activist and is not
a member of ChimPom;
D: Wrong. Largely means mainly and does not refer to how many
people are in the group;
E: Wrong. It is only stated that the group may be hinting at a new
direction in Japanese contemporary art. Hinting at - to give a slight
indication – setting the path then is too strong an assertion to agree with.
Gabarito “A”
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155
2. INGLêS
This text refers to the following three questions.
Can a planet survive the death of its sun? Scientists nd two that did.
1 Natalie Batalha has had plenty of experience elding
questions from both layfolk and other scientists over the past
couple of years — and with good reason. Batalha is the deputy
4 principal investigator for the spectacularly successful Kepler
space telescope, which has found evidence of more than 2,000
planets orbiting distant stars so far — including, just last week,
7 a world almost exactly the size of Earth.
But Kepler is giving astronomers all sorts of new
information about stars as well, and that’s what an European
10 TV correspondent wanted to know about during an interview
last year. Was it true, she asked, that stars like the sun will
eventually swell up and destroy their planets? It’s a common
13 question, and Batalha recited the familiar answer, one that’s
been in astronomy textbooks for at least half a century: Yes,
it’s true. Five or six billion years from now, Earth will be burnt
16 to a cinder. This old news was apparently quite new to the
European correspondent, because when she reported her
terrifying scoop, she added a soupçon of conspiracy theory to
19 it: NASA, she suggested, was trying to downplay the story.
It was not a proud moment for science journalism, but
unexpectedly, at about the same time the European
22 correspondent was reporting her nonbulletin, Kepler scientists
did discover a whole new wrinkle to the planet-eating-star
scenario: it’s apparently possible for planets to be swallowed
25 up by their suns and live to tell the tale. According to a paper
just published in Nature, the Kepler probe has taken a closer
look at a star called KOI 55 and identied it as a “B
28 subdwarf”, the red-hot corpse of a sun like star, one that already
went through its deadly expansion. Around it are two planets,
both a bit smaller than Earth — and both so close to their home
31 star that even the tiniest solar expansion ought to have
consumed them whole. And yet they seem, writes astronomer
Eliza Kempton in a Nature commentary, “to be alive and well.
34 Which begs the question, how did they survive?”
How indeed? A star like the sun takes about 10 billion
years to use up the hydrogen supply. Once the hydrogen is
37 gone, the star cools from white hot to red hot and swells
dramatically: in the case of our solar system, the sun’s outer
layers will reach all the way to Earth. Eventually, those outer
40 layers will waft away to form what’s called a planetary nebula
while the core shrinks back into an object just like KOI 55.
If a planet like Earth spent a billion years simmering
43 in the outer layers of a star it would, says astronomer Betsy
Green, “just evaporate. Only planets with masses very much
larger than the Earth, like Jupiter or Saturn, could possibly survive.”
46 And yet these two worlds, known as KOI 55.01 and
KOI 55.02, lived through the ordeal anyway. The key to this
seeming impossibility, suggest the astronomers, is that the
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49 planets may have begun life as gas giants like Jupiter or Saturn,
with rocky cores surrounded by vast, crushing atmospheres. As
the star expanded, the gas giants would have spiraled inward
52 until they dipped into the stellar surface itself. The plunge
would have been enough to strip off their atmospheres, but
their rocky interiors could have survived — leaving,
55 eventually, the bleak tableau of the naked cores of two planets
orbiting the naked core of an elderly star.
Internet: (adapted).
(Diplomacia – 2012 – CESPE) Based on the text, judge if the
following items are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) The recent discovery of a planet with some features
very similar to those of the Earth is one of the
interesting nds of the Kepler space telescope.
(2) The European TV correspondent reported a scientic
nd that had been long known as if it were a recent
breakthrough.
(3) The researchers seem bafed by the recent nd of the
probe, since they did not expect planets to survive
their sun’s expansion and subsequent shrinkage.
(4) The article mocks the European TV correspondent’s
disinformation about astronomy.
1: Wrong. The discovery was of 2,000 planets and their stars. The world
similar in size to Earth was no more interesting than any other discovery
made by Kepler. (lines 6-7) This could be just as easily argued to be
correct – a tricky question and perhaps worth missing out;
2: Correct. (Lines 13-16) It was old news, the scientist gave a familiar
answer, it has been in astronomy books for at least half a century;
3: Correct. Bafed/bewildered/confused – (line 22) to add a new wrinkle – to
add a new unknown element. (Line 34) – Which begs the question – which
poses the question – this would mean the scientists were confused or bafed;
4: Wrong. The article does mock the correspondent, i.e. to ridicule
her. However, disinformation relates to deliberately giving out false
information usually by governments or intelligence services. In this
case it was not disinformation. It could be construed as poor use of
information, but not disinformation.
Gabarito 1E, 2C, 3C, 4E
(Diplomacia – 2012 – CESPE) According to the text, judge if the
items below about Natalie Batalha are right (C) or wrong (E).
(1) She is the chief researcher of the space project that
involves the Kepler telescope.
(2) She was taken aback by the European TV
correspondent’s ignorance about the natural process
of a star’s living cycle.
(3) Natalie Batalha demonstrated how planets can survive
the death of the star they orbit.
(4) Natalie Batalha is used to talking about her research
to specialists and non-specialists alike.
1: Wrong. She is the deputy principal investigator (line 4), therefore,
she is not the chief. Deputy – an assistant to another;
2: Wrong. Taken aback means surprised/confused. No evidence to
suggest how she reacted to the correspondent’s ignorance;
3: Wrong. Astronomer Betsy Green (line 43) demonstrated this, not
Natallie Batalha;
4: Correct. (Lines 2-3) plenty of experience elding questions/dealing
with questions form scientists (specialists) and layfolk (non-specialists).
Gabarito 1E, 2E, 3E, 4C
(Diplomacia – 2012 – CESPE) Each of the options below presents
a sentence of the text and a version of this sentence.
Choose which one has retained most of the original
meaning found in the text.
(A) “A star like the sun takes about 10 billion years to
use up the hydrogen supply” ( l.35-36) / It would take
a sun like star around 10 billion years to supply the
necessary hydrogen.
(B) “Eventually, those outer layers will waft away to
form what’s called a planetary nebula while the core
shrinks back into an object just like KOI 55” ( l.39-
41) / Eventually, those outer layers will spew away
to shape what’s called a planetary nebula while the
core shrinks back into an object just like KOI 55.
(C) “Natalie Batalha has had plenty of experience elding
questions from both layfolk and other scientists over
the past couple of years — and with good reason”
( l.1-3) / Natalie Batalha was quite adept at discerning
which questions were made by layfolk or by other
scientists over the past couple of years — and with
good reason.
(D) “at about the same time the European correspondent
was reporting her nonbulletin, Kepler scientists did
discover a whole new wrinkle to the planet-eating-
star scenario” ( l.21-24) / at about the same time
the European correspondent was reporting her
nonbulletin, Kepler scientists did stumble upon a
whole new crease to the planet-eating-star scene.
(E) “This old news was apparently quite new to the
European correspondent, because when she reported
her terrifying scoop, she added a soupçon of
conspiracy theory to it” ( l.16-19) / This old news was
apparently quite new to the European correspondent,
because when she reported her terrifying scoop, she
added a dab of conspiracy theory to it.
A: Wrong. To ‘use up’ means consume completely; it is the opposite
idea of to supply;
B: Wrong. ‘Waft away’ means to go away gently. In contrast, ‘spew
away’ means to violently/with great force go away;
C: Wrong. Adept would mean skillful. It isn’t clear if she was good at
it or not, just that she had lots of experience. There is no evidence that
she had to discern/distinguish which questions came from scientists
or layfolk;
D: Wrong. Crease and wrinkle are synonyms in terms of clothes which
are creased or wrinkled – crumbled. In this context, wrinkle means a
problem. Stumble upon means to nd by accident;
E: Correct. Soupçoun is a synonym of dab/a small amount.
Gabarito “E”
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2. INGLêS
This text refers to the following three questions.
1 While on their way, the slaves selected to go to the
great House farm would make the dense old woods, for miles
around, reverberate with their wild songs, revealing at once the
4 highest joy and the deepest sadness. (...) They would sing, as
a chorus, to words which to many would seem unmeaning
jargon, but which, nevertheless, were full of meaning to
7 themselves. I have sometimes thought that the mere hearing of
those songs would do more to impress some minds with the
horrible character of slavery, than the reading of whole
10 volumes of philosophy on the subject could do.
I did not, when a slave, understand the deep meaning
of those rude and apparently incoherent songs. I was myself
13 within the circle; so that I neither saw nor heard as those
without might see and hear. They told a tale of woe which was
then altogether beyond my feeble comprehension; they were
16 tones loud, long, and deep; they breathed the prayer and
complaint of souls boiling over with the bitterest anguish.
Every tone was a testimony against slavery, and a prayer to
19 God for deliverance from chains. The hearing of those wild
notes always depressed my spirit, and lled me with ineffable
sadness. I have frequently found myself in tears while hearing
22 them. The mere recurrence to those songs, even now, aficts
me; and while I am writing these lines, an expression of feeling
has already found its way down my cheek. To those songs I
25 trace my rst glimmering conception of the dehumanizing
character of slavery. I can never get rid of that conception.
Those songs still follow me, to deepen my hatred of slavery,
28 and quicken my sympathies for my brethren in bonds. If any
one wishes to be impressed with the soul-killing effects of
slavery, let him go to Colonel Lloyd’s plantation, and, on
31 allowance-day, place himself in the deep pine woods, and there
let him, in silence, analyze the sounds that shall pass through
the chambers of his soul, and if he is not thus impressed, it will
34 only be because “there is no esh in his obdurate heart.”
Frederick Douglass. Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass, an American slave.
Charleston (SC): Forgotten Books, 2008, p. 26-7 (adapted).
(Diplomacia – 2012 – CESPE) To state that the songs “told a tale of woe” ( l.14) means that the songs
(A) were accounts of intertribal warfare.
(B) were hymns praising God.
(C) were delusions of grandeur of an African idyllic time.
(D) had to do with grief and sorrow.
(E) had the purpose of keeping slaves’ minds away from their hard work.
A: Wrong. There is no mention of warfare in this text;